Rare Book Monthly

Articles - April - 2015 Issue

Cayenne, The Dry Guillotine

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Stomp them in

 

Louis-Ange Pitou was carried to Cayenne aboard the frigate La Décade (Aymé, of whom we shall talk in another article, sailed aboard La Charente, and Ramel aboard the corvette La Vaillante); he reached there in June 1798. And his first impression was a terrible one: “Some avid eyes are staring at us... O my God, what beings! Are they men or beasts?” At the time, only 800 people lived in Cayenne. There were more than 15,000 in 1763! The plague and other diseases had sent them all to the grave. An unfriendly territory, indeed; full of dreadful... insects! The chiques would dwell under your feet nails to devour your flesh; if not treated, their wounds led to amputation and death. The gouty’s lice, a red vermin that loved creeping under your skin, “was to be found by the thousands on any blade of grass”; the crocodiles would catch every dog they could, and the vampire bats that caught you sleeping left you in a pool of blood. As our author says: “What a place!

 

But things are never so bad that they can’t be made worse. Soon, Pitou was sent to another part of Guyana, Konanama, under the “care” of Director Prevost, and the head storekeeper Beccard. In their case, to administer the place meant exploiting the prisoners by any means necessary. The change was so brutal that some committed suicide: one Sourzac suddenly jumped into the nearby river, and one Brunégat simply walked straight ahead until he met his death. But even in Cayenne, man remained the most dangerous animal.

 

 

The recently freed Negroes who were supposed to take care of the deportees actually charged them for everything, and left the poorest ones to die helplessly. They even refused to bury them—buried by his Belgian fellowmen, as the Negroes refused to do so, wrote Beccard beside the name of a dead priest (Pitou). “They laugh at all this mess,” writes Pitou, “and say, in their own language: We right fi steal the white people-them; Freedom gi wi de right.” In order to collect more money from burials, they rushed their work. Beside the name of Chapuis, another dead non-juring priest listed in Pitou’s work, we can read: “He was among those whom the Negroes stomped into their graves.” This particular event deeply affected Pitou, who dedicated a plate of his book to it. It shows the Negroes hastily burying some dead deportees; in the background, Beccard and Prevost, rejoice and dance with some female Negroes. The caption quotes Aymé’s book: “The undertakers have been seen breaking the legs of the dead, stomping them into too narrow and too short a grave. They acted this way to rush to another victim.”

 

 

Yet Pitou held no personal grudge—he wrote: “After the attempted coup of Fructidor 18th, the Directoire showed no mercy, and threw us upon this island, granting us a shadow of justice only (...). Beccard and Prevost (...) will be less guilty, if we dare scrutinizing the human heart. Their fierceness is a local crime they might have avoided had the deportees been less numerous, and hadn’t the bone of contention embittered both sides (...). The Negroes weren’t involved in all these crimes. They are manlike creatures that freedom has turned into mean tigers. (...) In a word, they’re wasting their freedom.” Pitou blames the system more than the individuals. After all, Beccard became “half-mad with drinking and pain” himself, before perishing in 1799, “in terrible convulsions.

 

Cannibals

 

As the title of his book reads, Pitou rubbed elbows with some cannibals while in Guyana. Sent to dry the morasses of La Franche, another deadly “desert”, he eventually mingled with a tribe of Indians, observing them and sharing their lifestyle for quite a while—but one day, they were attacked by a bunch of cannibals. “Lord! This is no battle, or slaughter; this is something even worse. Each winner takes his victim with him, tears him apart just like a lion revenging against the hunter who has hurt him.” Meanwhile in France, another type of cannibal was at work; Napoléon took over the Directoire on November 9th, 1799 (18 Brumaire) and pardoned the deportees. As Louis-Ange Pitou finally sailed away from Cayenne, he seemed to hear the voice of the martyrs he was leaving behind: “Thus, you’re leaving this place where our ashes rest in peace! Tell our families to forgive our enemies; we were 329 upon our arrival, half of us were sent to the grave in the twinkle of an eye. Carry our names to France and don’t forget you’re leaving in those deserts some companions of hardship...”

 

Upon his arriving in Paris, Pitou learnt the death of his beloved one; “From that day on, his life will be nothing but a difficult and unfortunate struggle against fortune,” writes Philippe Descoux. Sent back to prison for a few months, he was eventually pardoned; he then remained far from politics until the restoration of the Monarchy; he then tried to publish a “heavy and hard to digest composition without sense” (Descoux) about the Stuarts and the Bourbons, but the unexpected return of Napoleon put an end to the project. When Louis XVIII came back for the second time, Pitou was granted a pension of 2,100 francs; but he expected more, and he wrote dozens of inappropriate letters to the King. At the end of his life, “his intelligence has darkened” (Descoux), and he paid the price of his “stupid stubbornness” until being reduced to begging to survive. He died on May 8th, 1846, in the middle of an unfriendly “desert” of France, far from those in Guyana, where he had obviously left a part of himself—the angel had come out alive from the fiery furnace, but not intact.

 

Writers

 

Our three authors were arrested after the coup of Fructidor 18th, and then deported together to Cayenne; but they sailed in three different boats, and didn’t spend much time together, as it seems. Louis-Ange was just a street singer while Aymé was a former politician, and Ramel an officer in the French army. Pitou talks about Aymé in his book, who only lists him among the deportees as a 30 years-old singer in return. Aymé sends the reader to Ramel’s book to learn about the pains endured by the deportees of Sinamary. But Ramel talks about neither Pitou nor Aymé. On the contrary, they all mention Tronçon-Ducoudray, who ruined his health in anger and discontent. On one hand, Pitou claims he died from a putrid fever in May 1798: “He stubbornly refused to drink some turtle stock that would have saved him inevitably.” But on the other hand, he writes beside his name: Dead of sorrow. A sort of dry death.

 

Thibault Ehrengardt

Rare Book Monthly

  • <center><b>Hindman Auctions<br>Library of a Midwestern Collector<br>November 5, 2019</b>
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 5:</b> DARWIN, Charles. <i>On the Origin of Species.</i> London John Murray, 1859. FIRST EDITION. THE VERY FINE MELLON-GARDEN COPY. $120,000 to $180,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions Auctioneers, Nov. 5:</b> ECKERT, J. P, H. H. GOLDSTINE, and J. G. BRAINERD. <i>Description of the ENIAC and comments on electronic digital computing machines.</i> N.p., 1945. FIRST EDITION, INSCRIBED BY GOLDSTINE. $5,000 to $7,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 5:</b> EUCLID. <i>Elementa geometriae.</i> Translated from the Arabic by Adelard of Bath. Venice: Erhard Ratdolt, 25 May 1482. FIRST EDITION. $60,000 to $80,000
    <center><b>Hindman Auctions<br>Library of a Midwestern Collector<br>November 5, 2019</b>
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 5:</b> [HAMILTON, Alexander, James MADISON and John JAY]. <i>The Federalist: A Collection of Essays…</i> New York: John and Andrew M'Lean, 1788. FIRST EDITION. $60,000 to $80,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 5:</b> GALILEI, Galileo. <i>Dialogo...Dove ne i congressi di quattro giornate si discorre sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo Tolemaico, e Copernicano.</i> Florence, 1632. FIRST EDITION. $30,000 to $40,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 5:</b> JOYCE, James. <i>Ulysses.</i> Paris: Shakespeare and Company, 1922. FIRST EDITION, ONE OF 100 COPIES SIGNED BY JOYCE. $120,000 to $180,000
    <center><b>Hindman Auctions<br>Library of a Midwestern Collector<br>November 5, 2019</b>
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 5:</b> KEYNES, John Maynard. <i>The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money.</i> London: Macmillan, 1936. FIRST EDITION. $5,000 to $7,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 5:</b> NEWTON, Isaac, Sir. <i>Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica.</i> London: Joseph Streater for the Royal Society, 1687. FIRST EDITION. $150,000 to $250,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 5:</b> ROWLING, J. K. <i>Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone.</i> London: Bloomsbury, 1997. FIRST EDITION, SIGNED BY ROWLING. $80,000 to $120,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 5:</b> SMITH, Adam. <i>An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.</i> London: for W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1776. FIRST EDITION. $70,000 to $90,000
  • <b>Swann Auction Galleries Oct 24:</b> Sir Isaac Newton, <i>Opticks,</i> first edition, first issue, London, 1704. $15,000 to $25,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Oct 24:</b> Johannes Jacobus Canis, <i>De modo studendi in utroque iure,</i> first edition, Padua, 1476. $6,000 to $9,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Oct 24:</b> Pope Clemens V, <i>Constitutiones,</i> Nuremberg, 1482. $2,500 to $3,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Oct 24:</b> Nicolaus Panormitanus de Tudeschis, <i>Lectura super V libris Decretalium,</i> Basel, 1480-81. $5,000 to $7,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Oct 24:</b> Michael Faraday, <i>Experimental Researches in Electricity,</i> complete set, first editions, London, 1832-56. $3,000 to $4,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Oct 24:</b> William Gilbert, <i>Tractatus sive physiologia nova de magnete,</i> Sedini, 1628. $3,000 to $5,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Oct 24:</b> John Bulwer, <i>Philocophus,</i> first edition of the first book in English on the deaf, London, 1648. $1,000 to $2,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Oct 24:</b> James Cook, complete set, 9 volumes, London, 1773-84. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Oct 24:</b> Nicolaus Bertrand, <i>Opus de Tholosano[rum] Gestis ab Urbe Condita,</i> with the earliest known view of the city of Toulouse, 1515. $2,000 to $3,000.
  • <center><b>Hindman Auctions<br>Fine Books and Manuscripts Including Americana<br>November 6, 2019</b>
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 6:</b> RATZER, Bernard. <i>Plan of the City of New York in North America, surveyed in the years 1766 & 1767.</i> London: Jefferys and Faden, “Jan.y” 12, 1776. $80,000 to $120,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 6:</b> [KELMSCOTT PRESS]. COCKERELL, Sydney C. <i>Some German Woodcuts of the Fifteenth Century.</i> Hammersmith: The Kelmscott Press, 1897 [issued 1898]. $20,000 to $30,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 6:</b> [GOLDEN COCKEREL PRESS]. KEATS, John. <i>Lamia, Isabella, the Eve of Saint Agnes and Other Poems.</i> Waltham Saint Lawrence, Berkshire: The Golden Cockerel Press, 1928. $6,000 to $8,000
    <center> <b>Hindman Auctions<br>Fine Books and Manuscripts Including Americana<br>November 6, 2019</b>
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 6:</b> [GRANT, Ulysses S.— GRANT, Julia, First Lady]. Carved Applewood and 18-karat Gold Jewelry Suite, Browne & Spaulding, Jewelers, New York City, 1865. $20,000 to $30,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 6:</b> [LINCOLN ASSASSINATION]. GARDNER, Alexander. <i>Incidents of the War |Sic Semper Sicariis</i> [caption title]. Washington, D. C.: Philip & Solomons, 1865. $5,000 to $7,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 6:</b> A COMPLETE COLLECTION of 115 titles published in R. R. Donnelley's Lakeside Classics series. Chicago, 1903-2017. COMPLETE RUN OF THE LONGEST-RUNNING CONTINUOUS SERIES OF BOOKS IN THE WORLD. $5,000 to $7,000
    <center><b>Hindman Auctions<br>Fine Books and Manuscripts Including Americana<br>November 6, 2019</b>
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 6:</b> GLEIZES, Albert. METZINGER, Jean. <i>Du Cubisme.</i> Paris, 1947. LIMITED EDITION, number 19 of 20 copies on papier d'Auvergne. $3,000 to $4,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 6:</b> [THE LITTLE REVIEW]. ANDERSON, Margaret, ed. POUND, Ezra, ed. HEAP, Jane, ed. <i>The Little Review.</i> Vol. I, No. 1 through Vol. XII, No. 2. 1914-1929. $3,000 to $4,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 6:</b> [MOUNTENEY, Leonard, binder]. LOUŸS, Pierre. <i>Songs of Bilitis.</i> Chicago: Argus Books, 1931. $2,000 to $3,000
    <b>Hindman Auctions, Nov. 6:</b> [HANCOCK, John]. Partly-printed U.S. Loan-Office Transfer Certificate issued on behalf of Hancock. Sgn’d on recto by William Imlay, as Commissioner of Loans of Connecticut. 28 February 1793. $2,000 to $3,000
  • <b>Bonhams, Oct. 23:</b> SMITH, CHRISTOPHER WEBB. 1793-1871. <i>Indian Ornithology.</i> [Patna, India]: 1828. $50,000 to $80,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Oct. 23:</b> DUPRÉ, LOUIS. 1789-1837. <i>Voyage à Athènes et à Constantinople, ou Collection de portraits, vues et costumes grecs et ottomans.</i> Paris: Dondey-Dupré, 1825. $60,000 to $90,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Oct. 23:</b> ADAMS, JOHN. Autograph Letter Signed ("J Adams"), [to Dr. Perkins?] while recovering from his small pox inoculation, [late-April, 1764]. $30,000 to $50,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Oct. 23:</b> AUSTEN, JANE. Autograph Letter Signed ("J. Austen"), to her sister Cassandra, 4 pp, "Thursday – after dinner," [September 16, 1813,] Henrietta St. $80,000 to $120,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Oct. 23:</b> AUDUBON, JOHN JAMES. 1785-1851. <i>The Birds of America, from Drawings Made in the United States and Their Territories.</i> New York & Philadelphia: J.J. Audubon & J.B. Chevalier, 1840-1844. $20,000 to $30,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Oct. 23:</b> DODWELL, EDWARD. 1767-1832. <i>Views in Greece.</i> London: Rodwell and Martin, 1821. $20,000 to $30,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Oct. 23:</b> JAMES, JESSE. Autograph Letter Signed ("Jesse W. James"), to Mr. Flood demanding Flood retract spurious accusations, 3 pp, June 5, 1875. $200,000 to $300,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Oct. 23:</b> DE CORDOBA, JACOB. <i>Map of the State of Texas.</i> New York, 1866. $15,000 to $20,000
    <b>Bonhams, Oct. 23:</b> ARNOLD, BENEDICT. Autograph bookseller's receipt for Dr. John Dickinson, Signed ("B. Arnold"), February 1767. $3,000 to $5,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Oct. 23:</b> EINSTEIN, ALBERT. 4 Typed Letters Signed ("A Einstein") to Cleveland E. Dodge offering early reports on the meetings of the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Oct. 23:</b> EISENHOWER, DWIGHT D. Typed Letter Signed ("Dwight D. Eisenhower") to General Henri Giraud written from a secret bunker in Gibraltar on the eve of Operation Torch, November 4 [but 6], 1942. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Oct. 23:</b> Early Broadside Printing of the GADSDEN PURCHASE, Puebla, August 16, 1854. $2,000 to $3,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Oct. 23:</b> ALLEN, ETHAN. Autograph Letter Signed to Crevecouer during the Constitutional Debates in Congress, 2 pp, August 29, 1787. $30,000 to $50,000.

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