• <center><b>Ketterer Rare Books<br>Auction on November 25th</b>
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 25:</b> Fust-Schöffer-Bibel from Gutenberg-Press, 1462. Est: € 1,000,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 25:</b><br>J. W. Weinmann, <i>Phytanthoza-Iconographia,</i> 1735-45. Est: € 60,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 25:</b><br>O. Kokoschka, <i>Die träumenden Knaben,</i> 1917. Est: € 10,000
    <center><b>Ketterer Rare Books<br>Auction on November 25th</b>
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 25:</b><br>Z. Lilius, <i>Orbis breviarium,</i> 1493. <br>Est: € 10,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 25:</b> <i>Gazette du Bon Ton,</i> 1912-22.<br>Est: € 14,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 25:</b><br>M. Chagall, <i>Daphnis & Chloé,</i> 1961. Est: € 100,000
    <center><b>Ketterer Rare Books<br>Auction on November 25th</b>
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 25:</b><br>C. Ptolemaeus, <i>Geographie,</i> 1513.<br>Est: € 100,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 25:</b><br>E. L. Kirchner, <i>Umbra vitae,</i> 1924.<br>Est: € 6,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 25:</b><br>J. Miró, <i>Midi le trèfle blanc,</i> 1968. Est: € 2,000
    <center><b>Ketterer Rare Books<br>Auction on November 25th</b>
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 25:</b> Clemens V., <i>Constitutiones,</i> 1471.<br>Est: € 14,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 25:</b><br>C. Gesner, <i>Tierbuch, Vogelbuch, Fischbuch,</i> 1563-81. Est: € 5,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 25:</b><br>J. Itten, <i>Utopia,</i> 1921. Est: € 2,000
  • <center><b>Skinner Auctions <br>Fine Books & Manuscripts <i>online</i><br> November 11-17
    <center><b>Skinner Rare Book Auction November 11-17</b>
    <center><b>Skinner Rare Book Auction November 11-17</b>
    <center><b>Skinner Rare Book Auction November 11-17</b>
    <center><b>Skinner Auctions <br>Fine Books & Manuscripts <i>online</i><br> November 11-17
    <center><b>Skinner Rare Book Auction November 11-17</b>
    <center><b>Skinner Rare Book Auction November 11-17</b>
    <center><b>Skinner Rare Book Auction November 11-17</b>
    <center><b>Skinner Auctions <br>Fine Books & Manuscripts <i>online</i><br> November 11-17
    <center><b>Skinner Rare Book Auction November 11-17</b>
    <center><b>Skinner Rare Book Auction November 11-17</b>
    <center><b>Skinner Rare Book Auction November 11-17</b>
    <center><b>Skinner Auctions <br>Fine Books & Manuscripts <i>online</i><br> November 11-17
    <center><b>Skinner Rare Book Auction November 11-17</b>
    <center><b>Skinner Rare Book Auction November 11-17</b>
    <center><b>Skinner Rare Book Auction November 11-17</b>
  • <b>Christie’s London, Nov. 27:</b> [Peter I, Tsar]. <i>Simboly i emblemata ukazom i blagopovedenii imperatora Petra Alekseevicha [Symbola et emblemata jussu atque auspiciis Petri Alexeidis].</i> Amsterdam, 1705. £30,000 to £40,000
    <b>Christie’s London, Nov. 27:</b> Charlemagne, Adolf. Benefice d'Adieu de Madame Naptal. [St Petersburg: 16th February 1873]. £30,000 to £40,000
    <b>Christie’s London, Nov. 27:</b> [Military. Album.] [An album of drawings of weapons and their accessories, drawn from nature by the Second Cadets Corps.] St Petersburg, 1800. £100,000 to £150,000
    <b>Christie’s London, Nov. 27:</b> Pushkin, Alexander. <i>Evgenii Onegin.</i> St Petersburg: Dep. of Public Education, 1825-1832. £100,000 to £150,000
    <b>Christie’s London, Nov. 27:</b> Sumarokov, Pavel. <i>Dosugi krymskogo sud’i ili vtoroe puteshestvie v Tavridu. [The Leisure of a Crimean Judge or a Second Tour to Tauris].</i> St Petersburg: Imperial Press, 1803-5. £50,000 to £80,000

Rare Book Monthly

Articles - November - 2008 Issue

Stalin's Cartoonist Passes On

Usamcartoon

Yefimov depicted a greedy "Uncle Sam."


By Michael Stillman

A prolific political cartoonist passed away last month. His story is one of the more remarkable ones you will hear. Boris Yefimov is not a name well known in the West, but he was the preeminent cartoonist of the old Soviet Union. He lived to see the entire span of that empire from the inside, from its violent birth through its growth to major world power, and finally its very public collapse and death - all 70+ years of it. What's more, Yefimov saw almost two decades of Russian life both before and after the existence of the Soviet Empire. He was 108 years old when he died.

Boris Yefimov was born in 1900, son of a shoemaker, with ambitions to be a lawyer. In 1911, his father took him to watch Tsar Nicholas II drive by in his coach. He was not impressed. While Boris was not that politically astute, his brother, Mikhail, was. Mikhail was a student, soon to be journalist, when the Revolution broke out in 1917. He soon joined the cause, and by 1919, Boris followed suit. After Mikhail found work in the newspaper business, he invited his younger brother, who had shown a penchant for drawing, to apply for work as a cartoonist. Boris quickly became popular for his drawings.

While Boris never gained personal political influence (thankfully, as this enabled him to be a survivor), he became acquainted with the leading figures of the time. He met Lenin and Bukharin, and was a particular favorite of Trotsky. The latter was so fond of Yefimov's work he agreed to write an introduction to his first book of cartoons. Yefimov's publisher was reluctant to print the introduction, as by 1924, Trotsky and Stalin were becoming rivals, a rivalry in which Trotsky fared quite poorly. Still, the introduction was printed, and the editor paid for that decision with his life. Stalin had him executed. Yefimov was untouched.

Through the 1930s, the cartoonist would plod along doing the regime's bidding. He drew many cartoons of the show trials Stalin staged, appropriately displaying Stalin's rivals as villains. However, not even the greatest displays of loyalty guaranteed safety in Stalin's Soviet Union. Mikhail had many years earlier shown too much deference to Trotsky, and while Stalin could delay judgment, he never forgave. He had Mikhail carted off to the gulag in 1938, and about a year later, had him shot. Boris packed his suitcase when Mikhail was first taken away, as Stalin's custom was to punish his enemies' families as well. However, the knock on the door never came. Boris lost his job, but not his life.

Yefimov's unemployment lasted about as long as his brother's imprisonment, but with a much happier ending. He was rehired as a cartoonist. Yefimov attributed his remarkable survival to Stalin's enjoying his cartoons. He had a talent Stalin appreciated and perhaps felt no one else possessed. This began the greatest time in his career, though he faced his days in constant fear that at any time, some unperceived slight could result in Stalin's wrath and his sharing his brother's fate. Yefimov went to work drawing cartoons of Hitler and the Nazis, ones that portrayed them as the lowly beasts they were. The cartoonist shared these low opinions of those he mocked, so it was easy to put his heart into his work. Hitler placed Yefimov on a list of people to be killed once the Nazis overran Moscow, but he survived this tyrant as well, and lived to attend the Nuremberg trials and draw caricatures of the German war criminals.

After the war, relations between the Soviet Union and the other allied powers broke down, soon to be followed by the Cold War. Yefimov now had to picture western leaders, including Winston Churchill whom he admired, as villains. He complied. He depicted Churchill looking in a mirror and seeing Hitler's image. There was no choice. Either you pleased Stalin or you, and probably your family, would be executed. He went with the lesser of two evils. He would note in later years that he believed, or at least convinced himself, that horrible depictions of the West generated by the Soviets were probably true, so that he was supporting a government that was less evil than the ones he mocked. Sometimes survival requires convincing yourself of things you don't really believe.

Rare Book Monthly

  • <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM. <i>Macbeth: A Tragedy.</i> London, 1673. FIRST SEPARATE AND FIRST QUARTO EDITION. THE CHARLTON HESTON COPY. $80,000 to $120,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> HEMINGWAY, ERNEST. <i>In Our Time.</i> Paris, 1924. FIRST EDITION, PRESENTATION COPY. $20,000 to $30,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL. <i>Fanshawe, A Tale.</i> Boston, 1828. FIRST EDITION OF AUTHOR'S FIRST BOOK. $20,000 to $30,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> THOREAU, HENRY DAVID. <i>Walden; Or, Life in the Woods.</i> Boston, 1854. FINE COPY OF THE FIRST EDITION. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM. <i>Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies.</i> London, 1685. THE FOURTH FOLIO, Brewster/Bentley issue. $20,000 to $30,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> STEIG, WILLIAM. Original maquette and 58 finished drawings for <i>The Agony in the Kindergarten,</i> one of Steig's most important books. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> VERNE, JULES. <i>A Journey to the Centre of the Earth.</i> New York & London, 1872. FIRST EDITION, RARE AMERICAN ISSUE, with Scribner & Welford cancel title. $5,000 to $8,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> KING, STEPHEN. <i>Carrie.</i> New York, 1974. INSCRIBED FIRST EDITION, OF AUTHOR'S FIRST BOOK. $1,200 to $1,800.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 4:</b> APPLE MACINTOSH PROTOTYPE. 1983. The earliest known Macintosh with "Twiggy" drive, one of only two known working machines. $120,000 to $180,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 4:</b> PLATO. <i>Timaeus</i> [AND] <i>Critias</i> [from Ficini's 1484 Opera]. A LANDMARK OF SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT. $80,000 to $120,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 4:</b> LOVELACE, AUGUSTA ADA. Sketch of the Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage Esq. London, 1843. FIRST EDITION, JOURNAL ISSUE, MOST IMPORTANT PAPER IN EARLY DIGITAL COMPUTING. $15,000 to $20,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 4:</b> APPLE-1 COMPUTER. Signed by Steve Wozniak, used in development of Apple II. $200,000 to $300,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 4:</b> DARWIN, CHARLES. 1809-1882. <i>On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection.</i> London, 1859. FIRST EDITION. $80,000 to $120,000.
  • <center><b>Chiswick Auctions<br>Books & Works on Paper,<br>to include Travel, Sciences, <br>Sport & Illustrated Art<br>November 20, 2019</b>
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Nov. 20:</b> [Herberstein, Sigismund von, & al.] <i>Rerum Moscoviticarum…,</i> 4 plates, illustrations, folio, Andreas Wevhelius, Frankfurt, 1600. £1,500 to £2,000
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Nov. 20:</b> Bowen (Emmanuel) & Owen (John). <i>Britannia Depicta…,</i> fourth edition, engraved title and 273 maps, 4to, Thomas Bowles, 1753. £700 to £900
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Nov. 20:</b> Geographical Game.- Jefferys (Thomas). <i>The Royal Geographical Pastime or the Tour of Europe,</i> FIRST EDITION, engraving of Europe, map c. 507 x 665 mm, Thomas Jefferys, 1768. £600 to £800
    <center><b>Chiswick Auctions<br>Books & Works on Paper,<br>to include Travel, Sciences, <br>Sport & Illustrated Art<br>November 20, 2019</b>
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Nov. 20:</b> Germany.- Homann (Johann Baptist). <i>Atlas Novus Terrarum Orbis Imperia... Atlas von Deutschland,</i> engraved half title, 87 maps only, folio, Erben, Nuremberg, 1753. £8,000 to £10,000
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Nov. 20:</b> Iceland [Løvenørns (Poul)]. <i>Beskrivelse over den Iislandske…,</i> 10 engraved maps and plates, vignettes, 4to, Copenhagen, F. W. Thiele, 1788. £600 to £800
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Nov. 20:</b> Lewis (John Frederick). <i>Illustrations of Constantinople…,</i> FIRST EDITION, frontispiece and 26 views folio, T. McLean, D.& P. Colnaghi & John F. Lewis, [1838]. £2,000 to £3,000
    <center><b>Chiswick Auctions<br>Books & Works on Paper,<br>to include Travel, Sciences, <br>Sport & Illustrated Art<br>November 20, 2019</b>
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Nov. 20:</b> Lilford (Lord, Thomas Littleton Powys, 4th Baron). <i>Coloured Figures of the Birds of the British Islands,</i> 7 vol., second edition, [one of 450 sets], 421 plates, large 8vo, 1891-97. £1,800 to £2,200
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Nov. 20:</b> Londres [panorama], engraving, 350 x 520mm, chez Baltazar Moncornet, Paris, c.1666-68. £800 to £1,200
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Nov. 20:</b> Van Keulen (Joannes). <i> Niewe Pas Caarte Strekkende van Pta Cataon tot Pta Lamtaon…,</i> copper engraved map, hand coloured, 510 x 585mm, Amsterdam, [1753]. £1,200 to £1,500
    <center><b>Chiswick Auctions<br>Books & Works on Paper,<br>to include Travel, Sciences, <br>Sport & Illustrated Art<br>November 20, 2019</b>
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Nov. 20:</b> Goethe (Johann Wolfgang von). <i> Prologue dans le ciel, Traduction de Gerard de Nerval…,</i> 11 double sheets with calligraphic handwriting, 33 fine gouaches, Philippe Gonin, [Paris, c. 1932]. £400 to £600
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Nov. 20:</b> Murphy (Jill, author and illustrator) ARR. <i> Peace at Last & The Large Family: All in One Piece,</i> 10 pieces of original artwork from the two books, 1980 & 1987 (12). £1,800 to £2,000
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Nov. 20:</b> Rembrandt (Harmensz. van Rijn). Christ at Emmaus: the larger plate, etching and drypoint, 212 x 161mm, sheet 225 x 170mm, 1654. £1,000 to £1,500
  • <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 10:</b><br>Dr. Seuss, pen, ink & watercolor, calendar illustration, Thomas D. Murphy Company, 1937. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 10:</b> Georges Lepape, <i>Sur la Terrasse,</i> gouache & pencil, cover for <i>Vogue,</i> 1930. $8,000 to $12,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 10:</b> Charles Dana Gibson, <i>The Coming Game, Yale vs. Vassar,</i> pen & ink, for <i>Life</i> magazine, 1895. $2,000 to $3,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 10:</b><br>H.A. Rey, color pencil, charcoal, watercolor & gouache, for <i>Rafi et les 9 singes,</i> 1939. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 10:</b> Ernest H. Shepard, pen & ink, for Kenneth Grahame’s <i>Bertie’s Escapade,</i> 1949. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 10:</b> Charles Schulz, <i>The Biggest Star Measured So Far,</i> ink & wash, original <i>Peanuts</i> cartoon, published 1961. $8,000 to $12,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 10:</b> Saul Steinberg, <i>12 Biographies, A to B,</i> pen & ink with collage, final illustration in his book <i>The Labyrinth,</i> 1960. $12,000 to $18,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 10:</b><br>Jo Mielziner, <i>A Streetcar Named Desire,</i> watercolor, graphite & gouache, first color study for the award-winning 1947 production. $7,000 to $10,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 10:</b> Charles Addams, <i>Nevermore,</i> watercolor & ink, for <i>The New Yorker,</i> 1973. $12,000 to $18,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 10:</b> James Montgomery Flagg, <i>I Should Worry,</i> watercolor, gouache & graphite, cover for <i>Judge</i> magazine, 1914. $5,000 to $7,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 10:</b> Edward Gorey, <i>Swan Lake, Hunters/Siegfried, Van Rothbart,</i> watercolor, pen & ink, costume designs, 1975. $8,000 to $12,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 10:</b> Ludwig Bemelmans, <i>Sketch for Madeline,</i> gouache & ink. $6,000 to $9,000.
  • <center><b>Forum Auctions<br>Fine Books, Manuscripts and Works<br>on Paper including Books from The Collection of The Garden Ltd<br>November 21, 2019</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 21:</b> Bohr (Niels). <i>On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules,</i> first edition, presentation copy, offprint 1913. £20,000 to £30,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 21:</b> Shakespeare's Falstaff.- Henry V & Sir John Fastolf. Indenture agreement appointing Fastolf as Keeper of the Bastille of St Anthony at Paris, manuscript in French, 1421. £10,000 to £15,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 21:</b> World.- Purchas (Samuel). <i>Purchas his Pilgrimes. In Five Books...,</i> 5 vol., first edition, 7 folding engraved maps, contemporary calf, by William Stansby for Henrie Fetherstone, 1625-26. £20,000 to £30,000
    <center><b>Forum Auctions<br>Fine Books, Manuscripts and Works<br>on Paper including Books from The Collection of The Garden Ltd<br>November 21, 2019</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 21:</b> Book of Hours.- Use of Rouen, manuscript on vellum, in Latin and French, illuminated with 14 full-page miniatures by the workshop or follower of the Maitre de l'Echevinage, Rouen, 1480s. £20,000 t0 £30,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 21:</b> Giese (Raban, ?scholar and medical doctor). Album Amicorum of drawing on his travels and acquaintances in Europe 1618-21, 134 watercolour illustrations including c. 60 professional miniatures, 1618-39. £30,000 to £40,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 21:</b> Jones (David). 14 Autograph Letters signed, 1952-68; and a small quantity of ephemera (sm. qty). £6,000 to £8,000
    <center><b>Forum Auctions<br>Fine Books, Manuscripts and Works<br>on Paper including Books from The Collection of The Garden Ltd<br>November 21, 2019</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 21:</b> Constable (John). Various Subjects of Landscape, Characteristic of English Scenery, signed presentation inscription from Constable, 1833. £6,000 to £8,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 21:</b> Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669). The Descent from the Cross: Second Plate, etching and engraving, 1633. £6,000 to £8,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 21:</b> Salvin (Francis Henry) and William Brodrick. <i>Falconry in the British Isles,</i> second edition, William Brodrick's copy with 3 original watercolours by him, 1873. £8,000 to £12,000
    <center><b>Forum Auctions<br>Fine Books, Manuscripts and Works<br>on Paper including Books from The Collection of The Garden Ltd<br>November 21, 2019</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 21:</b> China.- Helman (Isidore Stanislas Henri). <i>Suite des seize estampes representant les conquetes de l'Empereur de la Chine,</i> 1783-88. £10,000 to £15,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 21:</b> Pratt (Edward Roger, 1789-1863). Album of 28 watercolours and other works on paper from a journey to ancient sites and monuments in the Mediterranean, [c.1830 and later]. £3,000 to £5,000

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