Rare Book Monthly

Articles - February - 2017 Issue

A Spectacular Collection Emerges from the Shadows

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The Duchess of Roxburghe and her grandfather, Richard Moncton Milnes (from Trinity website).

Once in a while, a long-forgotten collection of books emerges from its hiding place, usually after the death of a very old, unknown collector. Such a collection recently emerged in England, and it is one of the most spectacular finds in recent memory. Along with some signed books by important writers there were numerous one-of-a-kind documents that will add to our historical knowledge. Though in Britain, there was even a handwritten letter from George Washington. The librarian of the recipient of the collection, Trinity College Cambridge's Dr. Nicholas Bell, described it as "one of the most important private collections in Britain." He was not exaggerating.

 

There were approximately 7,500 items in what is now known as the Crewe Collection. There is much cataloging to be done before the full extant of the collection is understood, but here are a few of the books and papers known to be included. Along with the Washington letter, there are previously unknown manuscripts from Napoleon, Charles Dickens, and Florence Nightingale. There are inscribed books by Oscar Wilde and William Beckford, and rare early editions of Shelley's poems. Tennyson, Byron and Wordsworth are also represented by first editions. There is the most highly sought collection of American poetry – a first edition of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass. There are also rare pamphlets pertaining to the 1848 French Revolution and the American Civil War. Some of the works are oddities, such as rare transcripts of trials for murder, forgery, and witchcraft. Probably the oddest item of all is a piece of Voltaire's dressing gown.

 

Almost as fascinating as what is in the collection is the story behind it. Where have all these books been? The answer is that they have been on shelves, suitcases, and other locations in the home of the late Mary, Duchess of Roxburghe. Mary was born in 1915, the daughter of Robert Crewe-Milnes, 1st Marquess of Crewe. She was named for her godmother, Queen Mary. She was intimately involved in various royal ceremonies, including the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1937. She was herself married to the 9th Duke of Roxburghe in 1935 at Westminster Abbey. She was active in various causes during the war and always supportive of numerous charitable activities.

 

In time, her marriage to the Duke turned sour. The breakup became particularly public when the Duke tried to kick her out of the family estate in 1953, and for six weeks, she refused to budge. He turned off the power, water, and such during the standoff. Late in the year, she was granted a divorce. In the ensuing years, she continued to be involved in charitable activities and attended various functions, though without the notoriety of her split with the Duke. In 1966, she inherited a large estate in Surrey from her mother, where she lived the remainder of her life. Presumably, the books were there when she arrived. Mary, herself, was not a book collector.

 

Mary, Duchess of Roxburghe, died in 2014 at the age of 99.

 

The books were in the collection of her father. Robert Crewe-Milnes was born in 1858, died in 1945. The existence of the books has been virtually unknown to anyone since his death. Prior to becoming a Marquess and obtaining his hyphenated name, Crewe-Milnes was simply a baron, Lord Houghton. He inherited that from his father. He became Marquess of Crewe when his childless uncle died in 1894. Then, Lord Houghton not only inherited the Marquess of Crewe title, but also estates totaling almost 50,000 acres, with plenty of rents. It is not surprising that his book collection would be of the highest order.

 

However, it was not Crewe-Milnes who was the most notable family book collector. It was his father, the first Baron of Houghton, Richard Monckton Milnes, who was the most involved in the book world. Moncton Milnes was a poet and patron of literature. Both he and his son were important politicians, holding various government offices. Moncton-Milnes was born in 1809, and died in 1885. Much of what the Duchess left to Trinity was originally collected by her 19th century grandfather.

 

Moncton Milnes was born to a family of wealth and significance. Both his father and grandfather had inherited estates and were Members of Parliament, as was Moncton-Milnes. They supported progressive causes, from his grandfather's support of abolition, to his own for woman's suffrage, universal education, and abolition of the death penalty, to his son's support for retirement pensions and shorter working hours for miners. He was educated at Trinity, where he developed his literary interests. He became friends with Tennyson and Thackeray among others. In London, he came to know many other literary figures, such as Dickens, Trollope, and Wilkie Collins. Later on he came to count Wilde, Henry James, and travel writer Richard Burton among his friends. These connections explain why he had so much personal material from great writers in his collection. Though he dabbled in writing himself, it was his enthusiastic support of other writers and his outgoing, friendly manner that generated his many friendship.

 

In 1848, Moncton Milnes traveled to France to witness the ongoing revolution against Louis Philippe. He collected material pertaining to those times while there, explaining the large number of items of French revolutionary origin in this collection.

 

Moncton Milnes was very fond of Florence Nightingale. For nine years he attempted to win her hand. Ultimately, she rejected his proposal of marriage. She had a calling and feared marriage would interfere with her nursing work. Ms. Nightingale never married. Milnes married another, but named his daughter "Florence," novelist Florence Henniker. He did end up with some of Nightingale's manuscripts in his collection.

 

While his son, Robert Crewe-Milnes, also appreciated fine literature and wrote a number of works himself, he was not as outgoing as his father and does not appear to have had the connections of his father in the literary world. Nonetheless, he maintained the fine library and passed it on to his wife, and she in turn to his daughter, when they died. When representatives of the Trinity Library visited the estate, they found "books everywhere," shelves in most rooms reaching to the ceiling, more books on the floor. Then, in the Duchess' bedroom, they found an old blue suitcase in a closet. When they opened it, Dr. Bell said, they realized this is what she must have been referring to as "the holy of holies." It contained some of the best, such as the Leaves of Grass, inscribed Wilde material, and the fragment of Voltaire's gown. In the coming days and months, we should begin to learn more about this collection, begun by the Duchess' grandfather almost two centuries ago.

Rare Book Monthly

  • <b>ALDE, Feb. 26:</b> Leon TOLSTOÏ. <i>Anna Karenina.</i> Moscou, 1878. First and full edition of the Russian novel, in the author’s language.<br>Est. 3 000 / 4 000 €
    <b>ALDE, Feb. 26:</b> Mark TWAIN. <i>Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Tom Sawyer's comrade).</i> New York, 1885. First American edition.<br>Est. 5 000 / 6 000 €
    <b>ALDE, Feb. 26:</b> Walt WHITMAN. <i>Leaves of Grass.</i> Brooklyn, New York, 1856. Second edition gathering 32 poems. Est. 3 000 / 4 000 €
    <b>ALDE, Feb. 26:</b> Karen BLIXEN. <i>Out of Africa.</i> Londres, 1937. First edition in the UK, before Danish translation and American release.<br>Est. 1 500 / 2 000 €
    <b>ALDE, Feb. 26:</b> Ernest HEMINGWAY. <i>A Farewell to Arms.</i> New York, 1929. First edition with $2.50 on the dust and A on the copyright page.<br>Est. 2 000 / 3 000 €
    <b>ALDE, Feb. 26:</b> James JOYCE. <i>Ulysses.</i> Paris, Shakespeare and Company, 1922. First edition published by Sylvia Beach. Est. 3 000 / 4 000 €
    <b>ALDE, Feb. 26:</b> James JOYCE. <i>Dubliners.</i> Londres, 1914. First edition. Nice copy in publisher’s cardboard. Est. 2 000 / 3 000 €
    <b>ALDE, Feb. 26:</b> Franz KAFKA. 8 novels in German first edition, published in München, Leipzig and Berlin 1916-1931. Est. from 300 / 400 to 2 000 / 3 000 €
    <b>ALDE, Feb. 26:</b> David Herbert LAWRENCE. <i>Lady Chatterley's Lover.</i> Florence, 1928. Privately printed first edition. Est. 4 000 / 5 000 €
    John STEINBECK. <i>The Grapes of Wrath.</i> New York, 1939. First edition. Nice copy with $2.75 on the cover. Est. 1 000 / 1 200 €
  • <center><b>University Archives<br>Autographs, Books & Relics Including Kerouac Estate<br>& Hemingway<br>February 26, 2020</b>
    <b>University Archives, Feb. 26:</b> Ernest Hemingway's Typewriter Used to Write "A Moveable Feast", Impeccable Provenance From His Biographer A. E. Hotchner. $50,000 to $100,000.
    <b>University Archives, Feb. 26:</b> Samuel Colt, "The Gun that Won the West": 3 Signed Patent Items for "Revolving Cylinder Guns". $40,000 to $50,000.
    <b>University Archives, Feb. 26:</b> Jack Kerouac's Own Typewriter From His Estate Used to Write His Very Last Book. $18,000 to $20,000.
    <center><b>University Archives<br>Autographs, Books & Relics Including Kerouac Estate<br>& Hemingway<br>February 26, 2020</b>
    <b>University Archives, Feb. 26:</b> Rare Force Engraving of the Declaration of Independence Printed in 1848. $15,000 to $18,000.
    <b>University Archives, Feb. 26:</b> Superb Tchaikovsky ALS to Napravnik, 4pp on "Mazeppa". $12,000 to $15,000.
    <b>University Archives, Feb. 26:</b> Wounded Knee Massacre Same Day Eyewitness Account by Participant, "the 7th needn't be ashamed of today's record". $10,000 to $12,000.
    <center><b>University Archives<br>Autographs, Books & Relics Including Kerouac Estate<br>& Hemingway<br>February 26, 2020</b>
    <b>University Archives, Feb. 26:</b> F. Scott Fitzgerald Signed Gordon Bryant Portrait -- Finest Known. $8,000 to $9,000.
    <b>University Archives, Feb. 26:</b> Neil Armstrong ALS on NASA Letterhead Regarding His X-15 Flights. $7,000 to $8,000.
    <b>University Archives, Feb. 26:</b> M. Gandhi Letter: "the life span of human beings is preordained..." -- Fantastic Spiritual Content. $7,000 to $8,000.
    <center><b>University Archives<br>Autographs, Books & Relics Including Kerouac Estate<br>& Hemingway<br>February 26, 2020</b>
    <b>University Archives, Feb. 26:</b> "Damn the torpedoes!" Riveting 24pp ALS of Admiral Farragut's Steward Describing the "Battle of Mobile Bay”. $6,000 to $7,000.
    <b>University Archives, Feb. 26:</b> Abraham Lincoln Signed Order to Suspend Execution. $5,000 to $6,000.
    <b>University Archives, Feb. 26:</b> Napoleon DS Featuring Imperial Eagle and Enormous Great Seal Appointing Norman Politician Baron of the Empire. $4,000 to $5,000.
  • <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 10:</b> Francis Scott Key, <i>Star Spangled Banner,</i> first printing, c. 1814-16. $8,000 to $12,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 10:</b> William Sydney Porter, a.k.a. “O. Henry,” archive of drawings made to illustrate a lost mining memoir, c. 1883-84. $30,000 to $40,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 10:</b> [Bay Psalm Book], printed for Hezekiah Usher of Boston, Cambridge, c. 1648-65. $50,000 to $75,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 10:</b> Book of Mormon, first edition, Palmyra, 1830. $40,000 to $60,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 10:</b> <i>Noticia estraordinario,</i> probable first announcement in Mexico City of the fall of the Alamo, 1836. $40,000 to $60,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 10:</b> Patrick Gass, first edition of earliest first-hand account of the Lewis and Clarke expedition, Pittsburgh, 1807. $6,000 to $9,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 10:</b> Diploma from the Princeton Class of 1783, commencement attended by Washington & Continental Congress. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 10:</b> <i>Sprague Light Cavalry!</i> color-printed broadside, NY, 1863. $5,000 to $7,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 10:</b> <i>The Lincoln & Johnson Union Campaign Songster,</i> Philadelphia, 1864. $3,000 to $4,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 10:</b> Lucy Parsons, labor organizer, albumen cabinet card, New York, 1886. $800 to $1,200.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 10:</b> Daniel L.F. Swift, journal as third mate on a Pacific Whaling voyage, 1848-1850. $3,000 to $4,0000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 10:</b> Two photos of Thomas Moran, Grand Canyon, silver prints, 1901. $1,500 to $2,500.
  • <b>Morton Subastas, Feb 25:</b> Nebel, Carl. The War Between the United States and Mexico. New York, 1851. $270,000 - $300,000 MXN / USD $15,000 - $16,666
    <b>Morton Subastas, Feb 25:</b> Nebel, Carl. The War Between the United States and Mexico. New York, 1851. $270,000 - $300,000 MXN / USD $15,000 - $16,666
    <b>Morton Subastas, Feb 25:</b> Bolaños, Joaquín. La Portentosa Vida de la Muerte... (“The Portentous Life of Death”) México, 1792. $50,000 - $60,000 MXN / USD $2,777 - $3,333
    <b>Morton Subastas, Feb 25:</b> Tratado de Paz… entre la República Mexicana y los Estados Unidos. (“Treaty of Peace… Between the Mexican Republic and the United States”) 1848. $80,000 - $90,000 MXN / USD $4,444 - $5,000
    <b>Morton Subastas, Feb 25:</b> Fabregat, Josep Joaquín. Vista de la Plaza de México… (“View of the Square of Mexico”) México, 1797. $60,000 - $100,000 MXN / USD $3,333 - $5,555
    <b>Morton Subastas, Feb 25:</b> Hidalgo y Costilla, Miguel. Invitación al Coronel Narciso de la Canal… (“Invitation to Coronel Narciso de la Canal…”) 1810. $170,000 - $200,000 MXN / USD $9,444 - $11,111
    <b>Morton Subastas, Feb 25:</b> Gálvez, Joseph de. Real Cédula de Erección de la Compañía de Filipinas. (“Royal Notice of the Creation of the Company of the Philippines”) 1785. $40,000 - $60,000 MXN / USD $2,222 - $3,333
    <b>Morton Subastas, Feb 25:</b> Colección de Constituciones de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (“Collection of Constitutions of the United Mexican States”) México, 1828. $50,000 - $60,000 MXN / USD $2,777 - $3,333
    <b>Morton Subastas, Feb 25:</b> Ruelas, Julio. Poemario Manuscrito Ilustrado, Dedicado a Lorencita Braniff (“Collection of Illustrated Poem Manuscripts, Dedicated to Lorencita Braniff”). 1903. $60,000 - $70,000 MXN / USD $3,333 - $3,888
    <b>Morton Subastas, Feb 25:</b> Espinosa de los Monteros, Juan J. Aviso de la Junta Soberana al Público (“Notice of the Sovereign Meeting to the Public”) 1821. $60,000 - $80,000 MXN / USD $3,333 - $4,444
    <b>Morton Subastas, Feb 25:</b> Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos... (“Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States”) México, 1824. $140,000 - $150,000 MXN / USD $7,777 - $8,333
    <b>Morton Subastas, Feb 25:</b> Alcaraz, Ramón. Apuntes para la Historia de la Guerra entre México y los EU (“Notes on the History of the War between Mexico and the United States”). 1848. $40,000 - $50,000 MXN / USD $2,222 - $2,777
  • <b>Bonhams, Mar. 6:</b> Helvelius. Two Autograph Letters Signed to Francis Aston, Royal Society Secretary, noting his feud with Robert Hooke, 5 pp total, 1685. $70,000 to $100,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Mar. 6:</b> Newton, Isaac. Autograph manuscript on God, 4 pp, c.1710, "In the beginning was the Word...."?$100,000 to $150,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Mar. 6:</b> Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. First edition, first issue. Untrimmed copy in contemporary boards. $30,000 to $50,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Mar. 6:</b> Lincoln, Abraham. Signed photograph, beardless portrait with Civil War provenance. $80,000 to $120,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Mar. 6:</b> IMPEACHMENT. Original engrossed copy of the first Andrew Johnson impeachment resolution vote. $120,000 to $180,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Mar. 6:</b> Mucha, Alphonse. 11 original pencil drawings for?<i>Andelicek z Baroku,</i> "Litte Baroque Angel," Prague, 1929. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Mar. 6:</b> Einstein, Albert. Annotated Galley Proofs for <i>The Meaning of Relativity.</i> 1921. $25,000 to $35,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Mar. 6:</b> Silverstein, Shel. Original maquette for <i>The Giving Tree,</i> 34 original drawings. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Mar. 6:</b> Roth, Philip. Typed Manuscript with substantial autograph corrections for an unpublished sequel to <i>The Breast.</i> $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Mar. 6:</b> Taupin, Bernie. Autograph Manuscript, the original draft of lyrics for Elton John's "Candle in the Wind," 2 pp, 1973. $100,000 to $150,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Mar. 6:</b> HARVEY, WILLIAM. <i>De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus Anatomica Exercitatio.</i> Padua: 1643. $12,000 to $18,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Mar. 6:</b> CESALPINO, ANDREA. <i>Peripateticarum Quaestionum Libri Quinque.</i> Venice: 1571. $30,000 to $40,000.

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