• <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 17:</b> Currier & Ives, <i>The Mississippi in Time of Peace,</i> hand-colored lithograph, 1865. $6,000 to $9,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 17:</b> Hartmann Schedel, <i>Liber Cronicarum...,</i> Nuremberg, 1493. $40,000 to $60,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 17:</b> Claudius Ptolemaeus, <i>Geographicae Enarrationis Libri Octo,</i> Lyons, 1535. $20,000 to $25,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 17:</b> Thomas Jefferys, <i>The American Atlas,</i> London, 1776-77. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 17:</b> John Speed, <i>A Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World,</i> 20 miniature maps, London, 1665. $2,000 to $3,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 17:</b> <i>Biblia Das ist: Die Gantze Heilige Schrifft Durch D. Martin Luther Verteutscht,</i> illustrated cartographic Bible, Basel, 1665. $1,500 to $2,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 17:</b> Early Hawaiian-language school geography, Lahainaluna Seminary, 1840. $2,500 to $3,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 17:</b> Cornelis de Jode, <i>Africae Vera Forma, et Situs,</i> Antwerp, 1593. $4,000 to $6,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 17:</b> Maria Vincenzo Coronelli, <i>America Settentrionale Colle Nuove Scoperte Sin All Anno,</i> Venice, 1688. $7,000 to $10,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 17:</b> Johann Christoph Volkamer, <i>Nürnbergische Hesperides,</i> Nuremberg, 1708-1714. $12,000 to $18,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 17:</b> Johann Bayer, <i>Uranometria, Omnium Asterismorum Continens Schemata...,</i> 51 celestial charts, c. 1603. $5,000 to $7,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 17:</b> Manuscript map of Commodore Perry’s Black Ship squadron at Edo Bay, with manuscript sketchbook, ink & watercolor, Japan, c. 1853. $2,500 to $3,500.
  • <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> AN EARLY DUTCH POCKET GLOBE ATTRIBUTED TO WILLEM BLAEU, AFTER C.1618. £70,000 to £100,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> BLAEU, Johannes (1596-1673). £50,000 to £70,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> BLAEU, Johannes. <i>Theatrum Statuum Regiae Celsitudinis Sabaudiae Ducis, Pedemontii principis, ... pars prima, exhibens Pedemontium ...</i> Amsterdam, 1682. £70,000 to £100,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> DUDLEY, Sir Robert, self-styled Duke of Northumberland and Earl of Warwick. <i>Arcano del Mare.</i> Florence, 1661. £500,000 to £700,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> The Mainz Psalter: <i>Psalterium Benedictinum cum canticis et hymnis,</i> for Bursfeld use. [Mainz:] Johann Fust and Peter Schoeffer, 29 August 1459. £5,000 to £10,000.
  • <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> ALBUM AMICORUM OF SCHELOMITH FLAUM. Autograph album containing drawings, autograph quotations and signatures from over 47 contributors, India, Europe, America, Israel and elsewhere, 1923–50. £40,000 to £60,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> FLEMING, Ian (1908–1964). <i>Live and Let Die.</i> London: Jonathan Cape, 1954. £15,000 to £20,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> HISTORY OF CINEMA. Animal Farm (1954), an animation archive from the Halas and Batchelor studios, [c.1954]. £20,000 to £30,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> LE HAY, Jacques – [Charles de FERRIOL]. <i>Recueil de Cent Estampes representant differentes Nations du Levant...</i> Paris, 1714. [With:] <i>Explication des cents Estampes.</i> Paris, 1715. £25,000 to £35,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> THE LAST JUDGEMENT, historiated initial 'A' on a leaf from an Antiphonal on vellum illuminated by Nikolaus Bertschi [Augsburg, first quarter 16th century]. £7,000 to £10,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> VALTURIUS, Robertus (1413–1484). <i>De re militari.</i> [Verona:] Johannes Nicolai de Verona, 1472. £170,000 to £250,000.

Rare Book Monthly

Articles - November - 2014 Issue

Blessed Mr. TIGER, or the Pilier Littéraire

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The corner of Rue de la Huchette and Rue du Petit-Pont in Paris (where Tiger's shop once stood).

At the turn of the 19th century, when printing went through major changes, one bookseller made a name for himself by publishing dozens of popular titles. Simple, short and of lower quality, they met the needs of the time, and thus became successful. Meet Mr Tiger, owner of the famous Pilier Littéraire, located at 10 rue du Petit-Pont, in Paris!

 

I went to Paris the other day, in the Latin Quarter. I reached rue du Petit-Pont, one of the oldest streets of the capital, and then I walked up to the corner of Rue de la Huchette. Here it was... well, here it once was—the small and dark workshop of Christophe-César-Jean-Baptiste Tiger (1759-1825), the famous Pilier Littéraire. It used to stand at number 10, according to the title pages of my books, “at the bottom of rue Saint-Jacques”. But things have changed, and number 10 stands far from the corner of rue de la Huchette—so which of the two corners was the right one? I entered the jewellery store on the right, but the young saleswoman had no idea what I meant by “long ago”. Nobody in the café on the left could help me either, and I couldn’t follow the indications left by Cordelier Delano any further—in 1834, he paid a tribute to the Pilier Littéraire in Le Diable Boiteux à Paris (Stuttgart): “When you enter rue Saint-Jacques, close to the Petit-Pont, you find a huge shop of novelties at the corner of rue de la Huchette. There used to stand the honourable workshop of Mr Tiger, the Pilier Littéraire, the sanctified ground where, from ancient times, were created the double almanac of Liège, the almanac of Paris, of Rouen, and the popular stories of Cartouche and Mandrin.”

 

These popular books that suddenly flooded the market at the turn of the 19th century became known as peddling books. Printed in a small format (in-18°) and huge quantities on a mediocre paper, they were usually illustrated with an engraved frontispiece, and they were the cornerstones of Mr Tiger’s empire of paper. We don’t know much about Mr Tiger, except that he started in 1786 as a master binder in Paris—he was then based on Place Cambrai. He published his first books at the same time, and claimed to decorate and look after private book collections, and to make covers for every kind of almanac. The French revolution of 1789 abolished all constraints on book printing, and Mr Tiger seized the opportunity. “He established himself as a printer-bookseller as well as a printer of steel engravings,” states the French National Library, “he was also doing type foundry.” He wasn’t the only opportunist at the time, as the amount of booksellers doubled between 1780 and 1800 in Paris.

 

Almanacs

 

Mr Tiger specialized in almanacs, annual publications that, apart from a regular calendar, featured various pieces of work such as recipes, riddles or songs. They became the most printed and the most read books of the time, just after the Bible. Cordelier Delanoue had a lot of respect for almanacs—and the people who printed them: “Not far from the former shop of the Pilier Littéraire,” he went on, “we can still see a small and smoky shop, with an almost unreadable old sign: Aux Associés, Demoraine & Thébaud, booksellers. Specialized in almanacs of all kinds, religious, hymns and prayer books. Blessed are these offices! Blessed is Mr Tiger! Blessed is Mr Demoraine! Here, in those mysterious laboratories, the moms and kids of the community, and the nuns (...) come to buy their prayer books, their calendars and their songbooks. (...) Ô Demoraine! Ô Tiger! Duet of athletes! Duet of elders! Eternal joy of small bookshops, and of the Petit-Pont! Your shop, dark and shadowy as it is, shines brighter than all the golden panels of the vain bookshops of the Palais-Royal.” In fact, Delanoue seems to be speaking of the same shop, as the widow Demoraine was the “successor of the famous Tiger of the Pilier Littéraire.” (Emile Morige, 1834). The same Emile Morige stated that she was then printing 180,000 copies a year of the Parisian Astrologue almanac!

 

The early Tiger editions—before 1800—are hard to spot. We know that he moved to the Collège des Cholets in 1797, before settling at rue du Mont-Hilaire in 1798; then he went to rue Etienne-des-Grès in 1799, came back to Place Cambrai in 1800, to eventually open his bookshop rue du Petit-Pont, n°10, “at the corner of la Huchette, at the bottom of rue Saint-Jacques”, as written on the title pages. By then, his productions become more frequent.

 

He obtained his licence of bookseller in 1812, but was denied the one of printer in 1811—we know that he complained to the Minister of Justice in April 1811. The free market applied to books had generated too much confusion (and maybe too many pamphlets?) and Napoleon decided to put an end to it in February 1810. To obtain their licence, booksellers had to go through a police investigation, and prove their good morals as well as their loyalty to their country. Anyway, Mr Tiger kept on selling books until he went bankrupt in 1811. But he wasn’t out of business and was certified bookseller again on September 11, 1818. When he died in Paris on April 30, 1825, his licence apparently went to his widow, then to Alexandre-François Selligue, an engineer from Geneva who, in 1829, recorded a patent for a typographic press with a continuous movement, “that can print on both sides, and works with a steam engine.” (Revue Encyclopédique,1821).

 

Tiger’s Plutarchs

 

Nobody really knows Mr Tiger or the Pilier Littéraire nowadays. After a prosperous period, peddling books were replaced by serialized novels around 1850, and were disregarded as worthless readings. Mr Tiger published short, attractive and efficient books—in a word, profitable. He needed to sell books, so he focused on simple topics. He talked about popular heroes such as Mandrin or Cartouche, he related well-known tragedies (the shipwreck of La Méduse), or contemporary stories (such as the Napoleonic wars). He was an opportunist, who published an ode to Napoleon in 1806, and then The Corsican bandit, or crimes, forfeits and sins of Nicolas Bonaparte, in 1816. In the former, Napoleon is “a God from the mount Olympus”; in the latter, “a man who, thanks to his boldness, his hypocrisy, his forfeits and crimes, has sat on the highest throne of Europe.” As a matter of fact, most of his books were anonymous; even his almanac of Liège, the heart of his empire, was a counterfeit publication of what M. Froment called “the true almanac of Liège printed by Madam Bourguignon,” and which “wasn’t officially distributed in France where it only entered surreptitiously.”(La Police dévoilée depuis la Restauration, 1829).

 

The same M. Froment reported a curious story involving Mr Tiger. The printer was sitting with one Sieur Henriquez one day, drinking wine at the corner of rue des Saints-Augustins, “talking about the articles they would insert in the next edition of the almanac”, when they saw some turkeys led by a butcher walking on the sidewalk. One of the turkeys was walking very proudly, and Mr Tiger laughed: “This General shall soon lose its life in the middle of its soldiers...” Henriquez, wrote Froment, “noted that this would be a very appropriate article for the almanac.” When the publication came out, a policeman read between the lines, and foretold “the assassination of a General and more than that, a provocation!” Mr Tiger was denounced, and summoned to the police station where a police officer heard him, smiled, and then “politely let him go.

 

Mr Tiger was a successful printer, but his books became a cliché. As soon as 1829, the Memoires de Vidocq made an ironical reference to them: “It became clear for the Magistrates that (this) incident (...) was an invention of my agents; so many fancies, more or less bizarre, have been built up around it; and the Plutarchs of the Pilier Littéraire won’t fail to acknowledge them as truthful, if the idea ever comes to the printer Tiger, or to his successor, to add a title to his collection of peddling books: The admirable yet true history, of facts and memorable, extraordinary or surprising adventures of the famous Vidocq; with the portrait of this famous informer.” Tiger’s books somewhat symbolize the impoverishment of printed materials at the time. Nonetheless, certain titles still attract book collectors. Those about Napoleon are very valuable to those who try to know how the emperor was perceived in his own time, for example. And others like the History of Saint-Domingue, or the portraits of the French buccaneers, have become very rare, and quite expensive. Even the almanacs have become quite rare. I have listed the titles of his catalogue that I’ve come across lately. Some are for sale on the Internet right now, and I’ve mentioned their price after the description. Here is a part of what the Pilier Littéraire left to the world. 

Rare Book Monthly

  • <center><b>Fonsie Mealy Auctioneers<br>Rare Books & Literature Sale<br>December 10, 2019</b>
    <b>Fonsie Mealy, Dec. 10:</b> Archive of almost 500 Quaker letters written between leading members of the Society of Friends in Ireland between about 1770 and 1830. €10,000 to €15,000.
    <b>Fonsie Mealy, Dec. 10:</b> Heraldic Grants to the Delaval Family of Northumberland Manuscripts: 9 May 1761. Patent of Stephen Martin Leake. €2,000 to €3,000.
    <b>Fonsie Mealy, Dec. 10:</b> Unique Manuscript – Miniature Book by Seamus Heaney. Holograph manuscript copy by Heaney of his poem <i>Mad Sweeney’s Praise of Trees</i>. €2,000 to €3,000.
    <center><b>Fonsie Mealy Auctioneers<br>Rare Books & Literature Sale<br>December 10, 2019</b>
    <b>Fonsie Mealy, Dec. 10:</b> Yeats, Mangan and John McCall, with an ALS Yeats [W.B.]. <i>The Wanderings of Ossian and other Poems.</i> London, 1889. €2,000 to €3,000.
    <b>Fonsie Mealy, Dec. 10:</b> Heaney (Seamus). <i>Toome</i>, illustrated by Jane Proctor. National College of Art and Design 1980. Extremely rare Heaney title limited to 15 copies. €1,500 to €2,000.
    <b>Fonsie Mealy, Dec. 10:</b> Young (Ella). <i>Celtic Wonder Tales,</i> illustrated by Maud Gonne (four colour plates and other decorations). 1910. Signed by Gonne with an original sketch. €1,000 to €1,500.
    <center><b>Fonsie Mealy Auctioneers<br>Rare Books & Literature Sale<br>December 10, 2019</b>
    <b>Fonsie Mealy, Dec. 10:</b> The Yeats Brothers “Jack & William” Yeats (Jack B.) RHA (1839-1922). An attractive small pencil portrait of his son Jack Yeats, aged perhaps 10-12, drawing of a bearded man on rear [with] a second drawing. €1,000 to €1500.
    <b>Fonsie Mealy, Dec. 10:</b> 18th c. Manuscript Volumes on French Peerage Manuscript: “Recueil de tous les actes concernant les Ducs & Pairs de France… Depuis l’an 900 jusqu’en 1660.” €1,500 to €2,000.
    <b>Fonsie Mealy, Dec. 10:</b> Churchill (Winston Spencer). <i>The River War, An Historical Account of The Reconquest of the Soudan.</i> 2 vols. roy 8vo L. 1899. First Edn. €800 to €1200.
    <center><b>Fonsie Mealy Auctioneers<br>Rare Books & Literature Sale<br>December 10, 2019</b>
    <b>Fonsie Mealy, Dec. 10:</b> Important Scientific Association Presentation Copy - Tyndall (John). <i>Heat considered as A Mode of Motion…</i> 1863. €600 to €800.
    <b>Fonsie Mealy, Dec. 10:</b> Receipt Signed by Chippewa Chiefs Document dated 24 May 1845 signed by five “Chippewa chiefs on the River Thames.” €400 to €600.
    <b>Fonsie Mealy, Dec. 10:</b> Bury (Lady Charlotte). <i>The Three Great Sanctuaries of Tuscany, Valombrosa, Camaldoli, Laverna.</i> Lg. oblong folio L. (J. Murray) 1833. First Edn. €250 to €350.
  • <b>Sotheby’s: English Literature, History, Children’s Books and Illustrations.<br>Online now through December 10
    <b>Sotheby’s, now to Dec. 10:</b> Adam Smith. <i>The Wealth of Nations</i>. First edition, 1776. £50,000 to £70,000.
    <b>Sotheby’s, now to Dec. 10:</b> William Shakespeare. <i>Comedies, Histories, Tragedies</i>. 1632, the Second Folio. £70,000 to £100,000.
    <b>Sotheby’s, now to Dec. 10:</b> The Saint Albans Chronicle.] <i>Here begynneth a shorte & a breue table on these cronycles.</i> Westminster : Wynkyn de Worde, 1497. £50,000 to £70,000.
    <b>Sotheby’s: English Literature, History, Children’s Books and Illustrations.<br>Online now through December 10
    <b>Sotheby’s, now to Dec. 10:</b> E.H. Shepherd. “A Very Grand Thing – The Trouble at Owl’s House”. Original ink and watercolour. £40,000 to £60,000.
    <b>Sotheby’s, now to Dec. 10:</b> Charles Darwin. <i>On the Origin of Species</i>. First edition, 1859. £15,000 to £20,000.
    <b>Sotheby’s, now to Dec. 10:</b> William Blake. <i>Illustrations of the Book of Job.</i> 1825 [but 1826]. £10,000 to £15,000.
  • <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> SHAKESPEARE, William. <i>Comedies, Histories and Tragedies. Published according to the true Originall Copies.</i> The second Impression. London, 1632. £120,000 to £180,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> [GOETHE, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)]. <i>Das Römische Carneval.</i> Berlin and Gotha, 1789. £20,000 to £30,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> [SHAKESPEARE, William]. Manuscript part for a contemporary analogue to <i>Henry IV,</i> part I, n.p. [perhaps Oxford or London], n.d. [c.1580s – before c.1620]. £25,000 to £35,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> GOETHE, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832). <i>Faust. Ein Fragment... Ächte Ausgabe.</i> Leipzig: Georg Joachim Göschen, 1790. £3,000 to £5,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> SHAKESPEARE, William. <i>The Tragedy of Hamlet Prince of Denmark. As it is now Acted at his Highness the Duke of York's Theatre.</i> London, 1683. £60,000 to £90,000.
    <b>Christie’s London, Dec. 11:</b> [GOETHE, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832)]. <i>Die Leiden des jungen Werthers.</i> Leipzig: Weygand, 1774. £15,000 to £20,000.
  • <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM. <i>Macbeth: A Tragedy.</i> London, 1673. FIRST SEPARATE AND FIRST QUARTO EDITION. THE CHARLTON HESTON COPY. $80,000 to $120,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> HEMINGWAY, ERNEST. <i>In Our Time.</i> Paris, 1924. FIRST EDITION, PRESENTATION COPY. $20,000 to $30,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL. <i>Fanshawe, A Tale.</i> Boston, 1828. FIRST EDITION OF AUTHOR'S FIRST BOOK. $20,000 to $30,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> THOREAU, HENRY DAVID. <i>Walden; Or, Life in the Woods.</i> Boston, 1854. FINE COPY OF THE FIRST EDITION. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM. <i>Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies.</i> London, 1685. THE FOURTH FOLIO, Brewster/Bentley issue. $20,000 to $30,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> STEIG, WILLIAM. Original maquette and 58 finished drawings for <i>The Agony in the Kindergarten,</i> one of Steig's most important books. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> VERNE, JULES. <i>A Journey to the Centre of the Earth.</i> New York & London, 1872. FIRST EDITION, RARE AMERICAN ISSUE, with Scribner & Welford cancel title. $5,000 to $8,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 5:</b> KING, STEPHEN. <i>Carrie.</i> New York, 1974. INSCRIBED FIRST EDITION, OF AUTHOR'S FIRST BOOK. $1,200 to $1,800.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 4:</b> APPLE MACINTOSH PROTOTYPE. 1983. The earliest known Macintosh with "Twiggy" drive, one of only two known working machines. $120,000 to $180,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 4:</b> PLATO. <i>Timaeus</i> [AND] <i>Critias</i> [from Ficini's 1484 Opera]. A LANDMARK OF SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT. $80,000 to $120,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 4:</b> LOVELACE, AUGUSTA ADA. Sketch of the Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage Esq. London, 1843. FIRST EDITION, JOURNAL ISSUE, MOST IMPORTANT PAPER IN EARLY DIGITAL COMPUTING. $15,000 to $20,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 4:</b> APPLE-1 COMPUTER. Signed by Steve Wozniak, used in development of Apple II. $200,000 to $300,000.
    <b>Bonhams, Dec. 4:</b> DARWIN, CHARLES. 1809-1882. <i>On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection.</i> London, 1859. FIRST EDITION. $80,000 to $120,000.
  • <center><b>Dominic Winter Auctioneers<br>Printed Books, Maps & Autographs<br>December 11, 2019</b>
    <b>Dominic Winter, Dec. 11:</b> Melville (Herman). <i>White Jacket; or, the World in a Man-of-War,</i> 1st edition, London, 1850. £10,000 to £15,000.
    <b>Dominic Winter, Dec. 11:</b> Bracton (Henry de). <i>De legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae,</i> 1st edition, 1569. Ex libris Sir Daniel Dun (c.1545-1617). £3,000 to £5,000.
    <b>Dominic Winter, Dec. 11:</b> Edgar (Thomas). <i>The Lawes Resolutions of Womens Rights,</i> 1st edition, 1632. £2,000 to £3,000.
    <center><b>Dominic Winter Auctioneers<br>Printed Books, Maps & Autographs<br>December 11, 2019</b>
    <b>Dominic Winter, Dec. 11:</b> Donne (John). <i>Poems,</i> 3rd edition, 1639. Ex libris Sir Geoffrey Keynes (1887-1982). £2,000 to £3,000.
    <b>Dominic Winter, Dec. 11:</b> Mandeville (Bernard). <i>The Fable of the Bees,</i> 1st edition, 1714. Rare inspiration for the Wealth of Nations. £2,000 to £3,000.
    <b>Dominic Winter, Dec. 11:</b> Honter (Johannes, & others). <i>De Cosmographiae rudimentis,</i> Basel, 1561. Ex libris Georg Joachim Rheticus (1514-1574). £5,000 to £8,000.
    <center><b>Dominic Winter Auctioneers<br>Printed Books, Maps & Autographs<br>December 11, 2019</b>
    <b>Dominic Winter, Dec. 11:</b> Lincoln (Abraham). Military commission signed, Washington, 1864, and related documents. £3,000 to £5,000.
    <b>Dominic Winter, Dec. 11:</b> Faraday (Michael). Iron filings diagram on waxed blue paper, c.1850. £500 to £800.
    <b>Dominic Winter, Dec. 11:</b> Felixmüller (Conrad). <i>ABC,</i> 1st edition, Dresden, 1925. One of 10 hand-coloured copies. Ex libris Eduard Rosenbaum (1887-1979). £3,000 to £5,000.
    <center><b>Dominic Winter Auctioneers<br>Printed Books, Maps & Autographs<br>December 11, 2019</b>
    <b>Dominic Winter, Dec. 11:</b> Kelmscott Press. <i>The Order of Chivalry,</i> 1893. One of 225 copies; presentation copy from Sydney Cockerell. £800 to £1,200.
    <b>Dominic Winter, Dec. 11:</b> Joyce (James). <i>Anna Livia Plurabelle,</i> 1st edition, New York, 1928. One of 50 special copies on green paper. £1,000 to £1,500
    <b>Dominic Winter, Dec. 11:</b> Orwell (George). <i>Homage to Catalonia,</i> 1st edition, 1938. £2,500 to £3,300

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