• <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Leaves from<br>George Washington's Own Draft <br>of His first Inaugural Address. An Extraordinary Rarity!
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Declaration of Independence: Benjamin Tyler 1818 - First Print with Facsimile Signatures.
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Thomas Jefferson Signed Act of Contress Authorizing Alexander Hamilton to Complete Famous Portland Maine Lighthouse.
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Emanuel Leutze. Silk Flag Banner designed by Leutze, created by Tiffany & Co., and presented to Gen. John A. Dix, 1864.
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> The "greatest of early American maps … a masterpiece" (Corcoran). Thomas Holme.
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Lincoln Summons His Cabinet for a Historic Meeting to Discuss Compensated Emancipation.
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Albert Einstein. Autograph Letter Signed. Einstein Counsels His Son ... Meaning of Life.
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Normal Rockwell. Painting/Drawing Signed. Rockwell's "Barbeshop Quartet", 1936.
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Frederick Douglass. Autograph Letter Signed to unknown correspondent. Washington, D.C.
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Harry Truman. Autograph Manuscript Notebook for Kansas City Law School Night Class.
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Robert E. Lee. Autograph Letter Signed, June 11, 1782. Hours after the Battle of Culpeper Court House, Lee Escapes Again.
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> George Washington. Letter Signed, as Commander-in-Chief, Continental Army, to Elias Dayton, Headquarters, [Newburgh, N.Y.], June 11, 1782.
  • <b>19th Century Shop.</b> (DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION, Chicago, 1968). <i>Collection of papers of John M. Bailey, Chairman of the Democratic National Committee, concerning the convention</i>. Various places, 1968.
    <b>19th Century Shop.</b> (ARMSTRONG, NEIL.) VERNE, JULES. <i>A Trip to the Moon.</i> New York: F. M. Lupton, September 9, 1893. Signed by Neil Armstrong, first man to walk on the moon.
    <b>19th Century Shop.</b> KEY, FRANCIS SCOTT. <i>A Celebrated Patriotic Song, the Star Spangled Banner.</i> 1814.
    <b>19th Century Shop.</b> [COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER, Amerigo Vespucci ..] Bernardus Albingaunensis .. Dialogo nuperrime edito Genue in 1512.
    <b>19th Century Shop.</b> (WATKINS, TABER &c.). <i>An album of 32 photographs of the Yosemite and American West Various places</i>, c. 1890s
    <b>19th Century Shop.</b> (BATTLE OF CONCORD.) <i>Powder horn used by Minuteman Oliver Buttrick at the Battle of Concord</i>, April 19, 1775.
    <b>19th Century Shop.</b> (CIVIL WAR.) <i>An Extraordinary Confederate Photograph and Autograph Album of Dr. R. L. C. White</i>, 125 original mounted salt prints. 1859-61.

Rare Book Monthly

Articles - January - 2011 Issue

Google Ngrams:  What Words are Most Often Found in Books?

Ngram

Ngrams graph popularity of terms "flapper" and "hippie."

Leave it to the folks at Google to come up with another amazing new tool for us to use. I'm not yet sure of the practical uses for it, but it is something that will fascinate lovers of books and history for hours. It's called "Ngrams," and its existence relies upon the massive book-scanning project on which Google embarked in 2004.

 

At this point, Google Books' database contains scanned copies of some 15 million books. From this, Google has selected 5.2 million books, containing 500 billion words, for its Ngram word search. However, Ngrams does not simply match words. What it does is to determine how many books employ those words. They do not just provide a total, but place the matches on a chronological map. That way you can see how frequently a word has been used at various times. You can track the development, or antiquating of words or phrases by seeing how frequently they appear in books.

 

You can plot these graphs for single words or up to five words in combination. You can plot just one word or phrase, or several of them on the same graph to show a comparison. For example, the graph on this page is a comparison of the popularity of the words "flapper" and "hippie." "Flapper" reaches its peak in popularity in the 1920s, then tumbles, along with everything else, in the years of the Great Depression. Its use is then fairly constant over the past 70 years.

 

"Hippie," on the other hand, is a nonexistent word until the early 1960s. By the middle of that decade, it becomes more common in books than "flapper," a position it never relinquishes. It peaks in use around 1970, before settling down to regular, but less frequent usage.

 

Then there are the name changes. Compare "Hawaii" with the "Sandwich Islands." In the early days, the British gave the island chain the name "Sandwich Islands" in honor of the Earl of Peanut Butter and Jelly. That name starts showing up in the late 18th century, but "Hawaii" does not appear in the graph until the 1820s. It then slowly closes the gap, finally surpassing "Sandwich Islands" around 1890. Since then, the Sandwiches have slowly disappeared, while "Hawaii" became overwhelmingly more common.

 

This only applies to books in English, perhaps unsurprising because others may not have recognized the claims of the Earl's homeland. Books in French and German (you can sort these and several other languages separately) never showed much popularity for the "Sandwich" name, Hawaii becoming more common as early as the 1820s.

 

Another such example can be seen in the Turkish capital. For centuries it was known as "Constantinople." In 1930, the Turks changed its name to "Istanbul." There is no "Istanbul" in the books prior to this date, but within a couple of years, it quickly surpasses centuries-old "Constantinople."

 

Some times names get reused. "Engelbert Humperdinck" first appears near the turn of the 20th century as the music of the German composer gained popularity. His name peaked in the 1920s and then began to decline. However, in the 1960s, the name starts bouncing back up after the English crooner adopted the old composer's funny-sounding name as his own.

 

A similar pattern can be found for "Benjamin Harrison." Harrison was the name of a signer of the Declaration of Independence, while his grandson of the same name became President in 1884. Harrison has two peaks on the graph, a century apart.

Rare Book Monthly

  • <b>Swann Auction Galleries:</b> Announcing the Fall 2016 Auction Season
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Nov 1:</b> Autographs
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Oct 18:</b> Early Printed, Medical, Scientific & Travel Books
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Nov 10:</b> 19th & 20th Century Literature
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 8:</b> Maps & Atlases, Natural History & Colored Plate Books
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Nov 17:</b> Printed & Manuscript Americana
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 1:</b> Art, Press & Illustrated Books
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Sep 29:</b> Illustration Art
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Nov 3:</b> Old Master Through Modern Prints
  • <b>Bonhams: Fine Books and Manuscripts. Sept. 21, 2016</b>
    <b>Bonhams Sept. 21:</b> WARREN, JOSEPH. Letter Signed ("Jos Warren") as Chairman of the Committee of Safety. Cambridge, MA, June 4, 1775.
    <b>Bonhams Sept. 21:</b> WHITMAN, WALT. Leaves of Grass. Brooklyn, NY: [for the Author], 1855.
    <b>Bonhams Sept. 21:</b> JEFFERSON, THOMAS. Printed Broadside Signed ("Th: Jefferson") as Secretary of State. Philadelphia, February 12, 1793.
    <b>Bonhams Sept. 21:</b> CELLINI, BENVENUTO. 1500-1571. Autograph Letter Signed ("Beto. Cellini"). [Florence, c.1566].
    <b>Bonhams: Fine Books and Manuscripts. Sept. 21, 2016</b>
    <b>Bonhams Sept. 21:</b> NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. Autograph Manuscript. [c.1795].
    <b>Bonhams Sept. 21:</b> DICKENS, CHARLES. Great Expectations. London: Chapman and Hall, 1861.
    <b>Bonhams Sept. 21:</b> REED, JOHN. To the Honourable House of Representatives of the Freemen of Pennsylvania this Map of the City and Liberties of Phiadelphia With the Catalog of Purchasers is Humbly Dedicated.... [Philadelphia]: engraved by James Smit
    <b>Bonhams Sept. 21:</b> ELIOT, THOMAS STEARNS. The Waste Land. New York: Boni and Liveright, 1922.

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