Rare Book Monthly

Articles - June - 2017 Issue

Three Stolen Ancient Books and Manuscripts Returned to Italy by Boston Library

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Consentini, Varii de Naturalibus (ICE photograph).

Three antiquarian books and manuscripts, stolen from Italian collections years ago, have been returned to their homeland by the Boston Public Library. They had been "acquired in good faith via reputable dealers in the latter half of the 1900s," according to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). ICE has found itself in the news lately regarding enforcement of immigration laws, but thankfully, this case is not so controversial. All parties, the Boston Public Library included, agree that repatriation is the right thing to do.

 

Two of the items are manuscripts pertaining to the Venetian guilds. One is known as Mariegola della Scuola Grande di Santa Maria di Valverde della Misericordia. "Mariegola" means mother rule, this being a compilation of the guild's rules, dating back to the 14th or 15th century. Mariegolas would be updated over time as new rules were adopted. The second item is a single illuminated manuscript leaf from the Mariegola della Scuola Grande di San Giovanni Evangelista. These are rules adopted by the Great School of St. John the Evangelist. It was the Boston Library's own research that convinced them that these manuscripts had been illegally removed from Venice.

 

The third item was a 1590 book by Bernardino Telesio, Consentini, Varii de Naturalibus... Telesio was a philosopher-scientist of the era whose theory of the world, like those of so many others, was totally wrong, and yet, despite his current obscurity, he made a major contribution to science. More specifically, he contributed to the development of the scientific method for learning. For Telesio, the major forces which determined just about everything in the world were heat and cold, and the expansion and contraction that results. Naturally, that isn't even close to reality, but Telesio's lasting contribution was early recognition of the scientific method. At the time, philosopher-scientists believed the fundamental truths of nature could only be determined by reason. Observation by the senses, if it contradicted "reasoned" theories, must be wrong. Today, all science is based on observation, with reasoned theories needing to be supported by the observed evidence if they are to be accepted. This is the scientific method, as put forth by Francis Bacon, but that came a few decades later. Bacon was more systematic in his use of observation and experimentation, and it is fair to point out that Telesio's theory of heat and cold was not based on any observed evidence. Still, he was a proponent of sensory observation as a tool in scientific learning which was an important step, his contribution acknowledged by Bacon.

 

The Telesio book was "stolen sometime after 1824." That's a wide range. It had been part of the library of Cardinal Ludovico De Torres (II), Archbishop of Monreale in Sicily at the turn of the 17th century. Cardinal de Torres' interest in books is attested to by his later being named Vatican librarian. He donated his personal library, and in 1593, Pope Clement VIII issued a papal bull forbidding anything from being removed from his library. Whoever stole this book, if still alive, is not only subject to legal prosecution but excommunication as well.

 

This book was purchased by Boston Public from a California dealer in 1980. In this case, the discovery of the missing book came about as a result of research by the curator of the Sicilian library.

 

An interesting observation was made by Fabrizio Parrulli, leader for the Protection of the Italian Cultural Heritage. He observed, "I would like to highlight that public and private institutions are experiencing a change of perception in terms of cultural heritage. This transition has shifted from the concept of the need to return stolen cultural property to its rightful owner, based merely on law, to a broadly shared ‘culture of restitution.'" The number of stolen artifacts out there is enormous, and this has been a painful process for innocent institutional collectors, even more so for private ones. Some remain very reluctant to part with items unless forced to do so. The Boston Public Library, and even the city's mayor, recognized this is the right thing to do, period, while expressing the hope that there are no more such stolen books. We hope so too, though that may be wishful thinking.

 

At least, for books, the cases are usually more cut and dried. They were generally cases of obvious theft. Looted ancient artifacts, often never part of a specific collection, pose a much thornier issue. Many were taken from their homelands, often in accordance with the laws of European colonial powers. Does a European museum, possessing ancient artifacts from its one-time colonies have a right to keep them? It was "legal" at the time, but then again, the people of those lands never consented to foreign powers seizing and enforcing laws on their lands. Righting wrongs isn't easy, particularly when those wrongs happened long ago, and righting them requires hurting a new innocent party. What we can say is the trend today is righting the older wrong is the lesser of two evils, and that is likely the best choice if we are to discourage more theft and looting in the future.

Rare Book Monthly

  • <b>19th Century Shop:</b> Charles Darwin on sexuality and the transmission of hereditary characteristics: Autograph Letter Signed to Lawson Tait. Down, 17 January [1877].
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> MILTON, JOHN. <i>Paradise Lost. A Poem written in ten books.</i> London: 1667. A very rare example with the contemporary binding untouched and with a 1667 title page.
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> Hamilton secures the ratification of the Constitution: <i>The Debates and Proceedings of the Convention of the State of New-York, assembled at Poughkeespsie, on the 17th June, 1788.</i>
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> The social contract “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains”: ROUSSEAU, JEAN-JACQUES. <i>Principes du Droit Politique [Du Contract Social]</i>. Amsterdam: Michel Rey, 1762
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> “The first English textbook on geometrical land-measurement and surveying”: BENESE, RICHARD. <i>This Boke Sheweth the Maner of Measurynge All Maner of Lande…</i>
  • <b>Bonhams: Exploration and Travel, Featuring Americana, Part I. September 25, 2018</b>
    <b>Bonhams, Sep. 25:</b> Shackleton, Ernest. <i>Aurora Australis.</i> Printed at the sign of 'The Penguins'; East Antarctica, 1908. $70,000 to $100,000
    <b>Bonhams, Sep. 25:</b> Shackleton, Ernest. <i>South Polar Times.</i> 1st edition, limited issue. from the library of Michael Barne. $20,000 to $30,000
    <b>Bonhams, Sep. 25:</b> General Washington's <i>Proceedings of a General Court Martial... of Major General Lee.</i> Philiadelphia, 1778. 100 copies printed for Congress. BOUND WITH: ...Court Martial... of St Clair and ...Schuyler. $25,000 to $35,000
    <b>Bonhams: Exploration and Travel, Featuring Americana, Part I. September 25, 2018</b>
    <b>Bonhams, Sep. 25:</b> <i>The Voice of the People.</i> Boston, 1754. Rare pamphlet on the Excise Tax. Nathaniel Sparhawk's copy. $4,000 to $6,000
    <b>Bonhams, Sep. 25:</b> Autograph Letter Signed ("S.L. Clemens"), offering extensive hard-earned advice on writing, 5 pp, 1881. $30,000 to $50,000
    <b>Bonhams, Sep. 25:</b> After Fra Egnazio Danti. <i>L'Ultime Parti not:e nel Indie Occid:ntli" [The last known parts of the Western Indies].</i> Painted Map of California, Western Mexico, and Japan. $70,000 to $100,000
    <b>Bonhams: Exploration and Travel, Featuring Americana, Part I. September 25, 2018</b>
    <b>Bonhams, Sep. 25:</b> Ptolemaeus, Claudius. <i>Geographie opus nouissima...</i> 1513. The most important edition of Ptolemy, containing the Admiral's Map. $250,000 to $350,000
    <b>Bonhams, Sep. 25:</b> De Arellano, Don Alonso. Manuscript, his <i>"Relación mui singular y circunstanciada... Capitán del Patax San Lucas,"</i> manuscript copy from the Sir Thomas Phillips collection. $50,000 to $80,000
    <b>Bonhams, Sep. 25:</b> Purchas, Samuel. <i>Purchas his Pilgrimes.</i> First edition. With John Simth's engraved map of Virginia. $70,000 to $100,000
    <b>Bonhams: Exploration and Travel, Featuring Americana, Part I. September 25, 2018</b>
    <b>Bonhams, Sep. 25:</b> Lewis, Meriwether. Contemporary manuscript true copy of his final power of attorney, 1809. $8,000 to $12,000
    <b>Bonhams, Sep. 25:</b> <i>A New Method of Macarony Making, as Practiced at Boston in North America.</i> Mezzotint. London, 1774. $5,000 to $7,000
    <b>Bonhams, Sep. 25:</b> <i>Scientific Base Ball Pitching: A Treatise on the Pitcher, Pitching, Origin and Philosophy of the Curve.</i> Chicago, 1897. $2,000 to $3,000
  • <b>Swann Auction Galleries Sep 27:</b> Franklin H. Brown, <i>State Sovereignty, National Union,</i> Chicago, 1860. $6,000 to $9,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Sep 27:</b> Thomas Paine, <i>The American Crisis,</i> Fishkill, NY, December 1776. $25,000 to $35,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Sep 27:</b><br>The Aitken Bible, Philadelphia, 1781. $20,000 to $30,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Sep 27:</b> Francisco Loubayssin de Lamarca, probable first edition of the first novel set in the Spanish New World, Paris, 1617. $15,000 to $25,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Sep 27:</b> Juan de la Anunciación, <i>Sermonario en lengua mexicana,</i> first edition, first book of sermons in Nahuatl, Mexico, 1577. $30,000 to $40,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Sep 27:</b> Maturino Gilberti, <i>Thesoro spiritual en lengua de Mechuacá,</i> first edition, Mexico, 1558. $15,000 to $25,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Sep 27:</b> Commission of William O. Stoddard as secretary to the president, signed by Lincoln, Washington, 1861. $7,000 to $10,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Sep 27:</b> <i>Clay and Frelinghuysen,</i> flag banner, circa 1844. $8,000 to $12,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Sep 27:</b> Daguerreotype of a man believed to be Frederick Granger Williams Smith, son of Joseph Smith, circa late 1850s. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Sep 27:</b> John C. Wolfe, <i>Portrait of Abraham Lincoln,</i> oil on board in period wooden frame, circa 1860s. $12,000 to $18,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Sep 27:</b> Francis W. Winton, manuscript on pow-wows with indigenous Canadians, 1881. $15,000 to $25,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Sep 27:</b> Family letters from two young daguerreotype artists, 1826-79. $10,000 to $15,000.
  • <b>Leland Little: Important Fall Auction. September 22, 2018</b>
    <b>Leland Little, Sep. 22:</b> Published Half Plate Ambrotype of a North Carolina Confederate Officer. $2,000 to $4,000
    <b>Leland Little, Sep. 22:</b> Two 19th Century Books Pertaining to Canada's Red River Settlement. $400 to $800
    <b>Leland Little, Sep. 22:</b> Two Books With Fore-Edge Paintings of British Architectual Landmarks. $400 to $600
    <b>Leland Little: Important Fall Auction. September 22, 2018</b>
    <b>Leland Little, Sep. 22:</b> Andy Warhol (American, 1928-1987), "Torte a la Dobosch" from <i>Wild Raspberries</i>. $1,000 to $3,000
    <b>Leland Little, Sep. 22:</b> Keith Haring (American, 1958-1990), <i>Pop Shop II,</i> One Plate screenprint in colors, on wove paper, 1998. $8,000 to $12,000
    <b>Leland Little, Sep. 22:</b> Thomas Rowlandson (British, 1756-1827), Twenty-Two Prints from the <i>Tours of Dr. Syntax</i>. $500 to $1,000

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