• <center><b>Bonhams New York: December 5<br> Fine Books and Manuscripts Including the World of Hilary Knight [and] History of Science and Technology, Including Space History<br><br>Bonhams Online: Fine Books and Manuscripts, December 6-13</b>
    <b>Bonhams:</b> KNIGHT, HILARY. The Original Portrait of Eloise that Hung at the Plaza Hotel. $100,000 to 150,000
    <b>Bonhams:</b> WARHOL, ANDY. "Iced Lemon Delight," an Original Watercolor Presented to Hilary Knight's cat, Phoebe $8,000 to 12,000
    <b>Bonhams:</b> SENDAK, MAURICE. <i>Where the Wild Things Are.</i> PRESENTATION COPY, INSCRIBED with drawing to Hilary Knight in the month following publication. $10,000 to 15,000
    <center><b>Bonhams New York: December 5<br> Fine Books and Manuscripts Including the World of Hilary Knight [and] History of Science and Technology, Including Space History<br><br>Bonhams Online: Fine Books and Manuscripts, December 6-13</b>
    <b>Bonhams:</b> NOLAND, KENNETH. Original circle painting, untitled, acrylic and ink on cloth, for cover of monograph $8,000 to 12,000
    <b>Bonhams:</b> TOULOUSE-LAUTREC. <i>Histoires Naturelles,</i> 1899. With 22 original lithographs. $10,000 to 15,000
    <b>Bonhams:</b> SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM. <i>A Collection of Poems,</i> [1711]. The first authoritative and complete collected Sonnets.$15,000 to 20,000
    <center><b>Bonhams New York: December 5<br> Fine Books and Manuscripts Including the World of Hilary Knight [and] History of Science and Technology, Including Space History<br><br>Bonhams Online: Fine Books and Manuscripts, December 6-13</b>
    <b>Bonhams:</b> LONDON, JACK. <i>The Call of the Wild.</i> 1903. First edition, first state jacket. $2,000 to 3,000
    <b>Bonhams:</b> FROST, ROBERT. Autograph Manuscript of "Build Soil," 12 pp, 1932-1936. $15,000 to 20,000
    <b>Bonhams:</b> GOULD, GLENN. Glenn Gould's extensively annotated copy of Bach's Goldberg Variations $100,000 to 150,000
    <center><b>Bonhams New York: December 5<br> Fine Books and Manuscripts Including the World of Hilary Knight [and] History of Science and Technology, Including Space History<br><br>Bonhams Online: Fine Books and Manuscripts, December 6-13</b>
    <b>Bonhams:</b> PLATH, SYLVIA. EARLY Autograph Letter Signed, about her beginnings as a writer, Northampton, MA, 1951. $7,000 to 10,000
    <b>Bonhams:</b> HOUDINI, HARRY. A collection of 11 cast iron shackle and lock items from Houdini's personal collection. $20,000 to 30,000
    <b>Bonhams:</b> M4 ENGIMA MACHINE, with very rare RARE HYDRA KEY ENVELOPE. $400,000 to 600,000
  • <b>Ketterer Kunst Hamburg, Rare Books Auction on November 26th</b>
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 26:</b><br>H. Schedel, <i>Buch der Chroniken,</i> 1493. Est: € 120,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 26:</b> Latin and Book of Hours, around 1500. Est: € 50,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 26:</b> Biblia latina, Koberger printing 1493. Est: € 4,000
    <b>Ketterer Kunst Hamburg, Rare Books Auction on November 26th</b>
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 26:</b><br>P. de Medina, <i>Libro de grandezas,</i> 1549. Est: € 6,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 26:</b><br>C. J. Trew, <i>Plantae selectae,</i> 1750-73. Est: € 28,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 26:</b><br>A. de Laborde, <i>Voyage pittoresque,</i> 1806-20. Est: € 8,000
    <b>Ketterer Kunst Hamburg, Rare Books Auction on November 26th</b>
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 26:</b><br>G. Klimt, <i>Eine Nachlese,</i> 1931.<br>Est: € 10,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 26:</b><br>W. Kandinsky, <i>Klänge,</i> 1913.<br>Est: € 20,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 26:</b><br>F. Léger, <i>Les illuminations,</i> 1949.<br>Est: € 2,000
    <b>Ketterer Kunst Hamburg, Rare Books Auction on November 26th</b>
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 26:</b> Master binding by E. Maylander, 1945. Est: € 1,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 26:</b> Master binding by G. Cretté, 1934. Est: € 6,000
    <b>Ketterer Rare Books, November 26:</b><br>S. Dalí, <i>Après 50 ans des surréalisme,</i> 1974. Est: € 8,000
  • <center><b>David Gindy's One Of A Kind Collectibles Rare Autographs & Manuscripts Auction.<br>November 15, 2018</b>
    <b>One of a Kind Collectibles, Nov. 15:</b> An original copy of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution “extending the right of suffrage to women.” $15,000 to $20,000
    <b>One of a Kind Collectibles, Nov. 15:</b> William Henry Harrison. Very rare signature as President. $7,500 to $10,000
    <b>One of a Kind Collectibles, Nov. 15:</b> 24"x32" Signed Image of Alexander Graham Bell. $7,500 to $10,000
    <center><b>David Gindy's One Of A Kind Collectibles Rare Autographs & Manuscripts Auction.<br>November 15, 2018</b>
    <b>One of a Kind Collectibles, Nov. 15:</b> Important Appointment for Harry Woodring as Secretary of War by Franklin D. Roosevelt. $3,000 to $5,000
    <b>One of a Kind Collectibles, Nov. 15:</b> Thomas Edison original patent related to dynamos for electrical lamps. $14,000 to $18,000
    <b>One of a Kind Collectibles, Nov. 15:</b> Important 1681 Penn Land Grant to His friend Robert Turner, credited for defining the look of Philadelphia for the next 200 years. $5,000 to $7,000
    <center><b>David Gindy's One Of A Kind Collectibles Rare Autographs & Manuscripts Auction.<br>November 15, 2018</b>
    <b>One of a Kind Collectibles, Nov. 15:</b> Act of the Second Congress relating to trade with Indians issued by George Washington and signed by Thomas Jefferson. $22,000 to $27,000
    <b>One of a Kind Collectibles, Nov. 15:</b> Lincoln, Abraham. Document signed, August 15, 1861, appointing Fabius Stanley a Commander in the Navy. $6,500 to $8,000
    <b>One of a Kind Collectibles, Nov. 15:</b> Abraham Lincoln. A fine example of the iconic George Clark ambrotype. $3,000 to $5,000
    <center><b>David Gindy's One Of A Kind Collectibles Rare Autographs & Manuscripts Auction.<br>November 15, 2018</b>
    <b>One of a Kind Collectibles, Nov. 15:</b> Hector Berlioz. Rare autograph musical quotation signed, seven bars from the “Love Scene” of his choral symphony Romeo et Juliette. $4,000 to $6,000
    <b>One of a Kind Collectibles, Nov. 15:</b> McKenney & Hall. <i>History of the Indian Tribes of North America</i>, 1865, Three Volumes. $3,000 to $5,000
    <b>One of a Kind Collectibles, Nov. 15:</b> Rare Honore de Balzac handwritten and signed letter bound in book. $3,000 to $5,000
  • <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 6:</b> Maria Louise Kirk, 4 pen, ink, watercolor & gouache illustrations for <i>Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland,</i> 1904. $5,000 to $7,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 6:</b> H.A. Rey, <i>“Do You Want To Get Across?”</i> colored pencil, charcoal & watercolor, 1939. $10,000 to $15,000
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 6:</b> Norman Rockwell, <i>The Pharmacist,</i> study for cover of <i>The Saturday Evening Post,</i> 1939. $70,000 to $100,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 6:</b> Sir William Russell Flint, illustration for Homer’s <i>Odyssey,</i> gouache & watercolor, 1914. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 6:</b> Ludwig Bemelmans, <i>“And everyone was in his bed,"</i> gouache, watercolor & ink on board, 1961. $30,000 to $40,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 6:</b> Charles M. Shulz, <i>Woodstock is Searching for His Identity,</i> original pen & ink 4-panel <i>Peanuts</i> comic strip, 1972. $7,000 to $10,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 6:</b> Eric Carle, <i>The Very Hungry Caterpillar,</i> painted collage, 1990. $8,000 to $12,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 6:</b> Jerry Pinkney, <i>The Lion & The Mouse,</i> watercolor & graphite, illustration for <i>School Library Journal,</i> 2009. $7,000 to $10,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 6:</b> Maurice Sendak, watercolor & graphite illustration for <i>Little Bear's New Friend,</i> 2001. $30,000 to $40,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 6:</b> Peter Arno, <i>Circus Tricks,</i> ink, wash & watercolor, cover illustration for <i>The New Yorker,</i> 1964. $4,000 to $6,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Dec 6:</b> Garry Trudeau, Doonesbury: <i>“Is Rufus Ready for his Lesson?”,</i> watercolor, pen & ink, circa 1970s. $6,000 to $9,000.

Rare Book Monthly

Articles - July - 2016 Issue

Sales Taxes on Out of State Sales – Coming to Your Bookseller Soon?

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Going up?

If you are an American bookseller selling your wares to out of state customers, be it online, through catalogues or the phone, one of these days you will probably have to collect all of those states' sales taxes. There are too many state governors and legislators who want a piece of your action, and like a crying child, they aren't giving in until they get their way. Those opposing such collection requirements may have won all the battles, but the other side won't quit until they win the war.

 

Back in May, South Dakota adopted legislation requiring out of state retailers selling either over $100,000 in goods or conducting at least 200 annual transactions in South Dakota to collect sales tax on their behalf and remit it to the state treasury. You may breathe a sigh of relief. You probably don't sell anything like that in South Dakota. Two hundred must be something like half the population. However, watch out for the precedent. If you are a larger dealer, either selling high end books, or low end ones in large quantity, a law like that passed by New York or California may well affect your business. One thing you can count on is that if South Dakota's law is upheld, you will soon see similar laws in those and every other state. As Donald Trump would say, believe me.

 

Why haven't New York and California already adopted such laws? The primary reason is that it is unconstitutional. Even South Dakota acknowledges that. While it is very difficult to change the constitution, requiring two-thirds votes in Congress and three-quarters of state legislatures to agree, there is an easier way – just get the Supreme Court to change its mind. That is precisely what the state of South Dakota has in mind.

 

This all requires a bit of background. This issue has come up many times before. Back in the mail order days, states regularly wanted to force out of state retailers to collect their sales tax. However, the Supreme Court always said no. The reason is the Constitution's Commerce Clause, which gives the federal government exclusive power to regulate interstate commerce. That prohibited South Dakota from making demands on an out of state retailer. The court issued a physical presence or "nexus" test as to who was an in versus out of state retailer. If a retailer had some connection with a state, say a store or a warehouse there, or local salesmen, that constituted "nexus." A state could require such a retailer to collect their sales tax. If there was no nexus, it could not. States tried to come up with expansive forms of "nexus," like claiming that running an advertisement in a magazine delivered in the state, or one on a television show played in the state, constituted nexus. The court said nice try, but no dice.

 

A quarter of a century ago, South Dakota's neighbor, the Dakota of the North, attempted such an end around. North Dakota attempted to get mail order office products retailer Quill to collect their taxes. The court again said no, but added a significant footnote. The court implied that since the problem was that the states were trying to usurp federal authority, if the federal government expressly authorized the states to collect sales tax on out of state retailers, then they could be required to collect those taxes. State legislators seeking more tax dollars, and bricks and mortar retailers who feel they are at a competitive disadvantage since they must collect the taxes, have been trying to get Congress to pass such an authorization ever since. Congress moves slowly.

 

Three years ago, forces wishing to grant states the power to collect sales taxes began earnestly pushing something known as the Marketplace Fairness Act on Congress. Who could be against marketplace fairness? The answer is a lot of congressmen fearful for their jobs. Few have forgotten what happened to George H. W. Bush when voters discovered they must not have read his lips correctly. They may think the act is fair, but they are loathe to put their names on any tax bill. Americans like fairness, but not as much as they hate taxes. Fair taxes, unfair taxes, taxes without representation, taxes with representation – they are all the same. We hate them. We just may vote representatives who approve them out of office. So the Marketplace Fairness Act has never been voted up, nor voted down. Congress takes the sensible road – they avoid the issue like the plague.

 

So finally, the states have become tired of waiting. South Dakota may be leading the way, but such legislation is popping up in other states as diverse as Alabama, Ohio, Colorado, and Rhode Island. This latest push has been incited in part by an opinion from Justice Kennedy in a recent case. Justice Kennedy is often the swing vote in Supreme Court decisions, so people listen to what he says. Justice Kennedy noted that it might be time to reopen the decision in the Quill case. He said that Quill is "now inflicting extreme harm and unfairness on the states." The Justice said there is a "powerful case" to be made that simply making a lot of sales in a state is sufficient to generate nexus needed to require an out of state retailer to collect sales tax. Kennedy pointed to the enormous increase in mail order type sales via the internet since the Quill case was decided in 1992. His words make it sound like he is ready to flip his vote from the Quill case the next time around.

 

Seizing the opportunity, South Dakota passed its law. They sought a judgment against several large, out of state retailers. The American Catalog Mailers Association quickly responded with a suit of its own against the state of South Dakota. Everyone, South Dakota included, expects the state to lose in the lower courts. Those courts are bound to follow Supreme Court precedent. The aim of this legislation is to get the case to the Supreme Court on appeal. There, they hope that court will overturn its 25-year-old opinion and uphold their legislation. If that happens, it will be just a matter of time, and a short amount at that, before you will be required to collect sales taxes for the 45 states that impose them.

Rare Book Monthly

  • <b>Old World Auctions (Nov 1-14):</b><br>Lot 45. A complete edition of the rare and popular <i>Mer des Histoires,</i> 1543. Est. $28000 to $35000
    <b>Old World Auctions (Nov 1-14):</b><br>Lot 64. Kircher's fascinating cross-section of the earth's interior, 1682. Est. $1600 to $1900
    <b>Old World Auctions (Nov 1-14):</b><br>Lot 68. Geographical guide to a man's heart with obstacles "clearly marked", 1960. Est. $200 to $300
    <b>Old World Auctions (Nov 1-14):</b><br>Lot 75. Jansson's rare carte-a-figures map of the Americas in full original color, 1645. Est. $7000 to $8500
    <b>Old World Auctions (Nov 1-14):</b><br>Lot 107. Includes famous Gallatin map and portraits of North American Indians, 1840. Est. $900 to $1100
    <b>Old World Auctions (Nov 1-14):</b><br>Lot 231. A hot-air balloon perspective of California's famous Wine Country, 1979. Est. $150 to $180
    <b>Old World Auctions (Nov 1-14):</b><br>Lot 236. Lovely chromolithograph of California Street in San Francisco, 1864. Est. $1000 to $1300
    <b>Old World Auctions (Nov 1-14):</b><br>Lot 446. Rare German satirical map of World War I, 1915. Est. $1800 to $2200
    <b>Old World Auctions (Nov 1-14):</b><br>Lot 543. Olearius' important plan of Moscow, 1647. Est. $1800 to $2200
    <b>Old World Auctions (Nov 1-14):</b><br>Lot 660. Robert Walton's scarce, separately-issued carte-a-figures map, 1660. Est. $6000 to $7000
    <b>Old World Auctions (Nov 1-14):</b><br>Lot 702. Rare engraving of flags from "Le Neptune Francois", 1700.<br>Est. $950 to $1200
    <b>Old World Auctions (Nov 1-14):</b><br>Lot 719. Two-volume geographical grammar & dictionary with 20 maps, 1795. Est. $450 to $550
  • <b>Doyle, Online-Only Auction, 20th Century Literature, Nov 15:</b> Ernest Hemingway, <i>A Farewell To Arms,</i> 1929. $500 to $800
    <b>Doyle, Online-Only Auction, 20th Century Literature, Nov 15:</b> William Faulkner, <i>Go Down Moses,</i> 1942. $300 to $500
    <b>Doyle, Online-Only Auction, 20th Century Literature, Nov 15:</b> Jack Kerouac, <i>Vanity Of Dulouz,</i> 1968. $250-350
    <b>Doyle, Online-Only Auction, 20th Century Literature, Nov 15:</b> Gertrude Stein, <i>The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas,</i> 1933. $150-250
    <b>Doyle, Online-Only Auction, 20th Century Literature, Nov 15:</b> John Steinbeck, Three first editions. Comprising <i>Of Mice and Men, Covici-Friede,</i> 1937. $200 to $300
    <b>Doyle, Online-Only Auction, 20th Century Literature, Nov 15:</b> Dalton Trumbo, <i>Johnny Got His Gun,</i> 1939. $300 to $500
    <b>Doyle, Online-Only Auction, 20th Century Literature, Nov 15:</b> Evelyn Waugh, <i>Vile Bodies,</i> 1930. $400 to $600
  • <b>Christie’s Paris, Nov 20:</b> GAZA, Theodorus. <i>Introductivae grammatices libriquatuor.</i> Venice: Aldus Manutius, 25 December 1495. €40,000 to 50,000
    <b>Christie’s Paris, Nov 20:</b> MACHIAVELLI, Niccolo. <i>Historie di Nicolo Machiavegli cittadino, et segretario fiorentino</i>... Rome: Antonio Blado, 25 March 1532. €15,000 to 20,000
    <b>Christie’s Paris, Nov 20:</b> BELLMER, Hans -- ELUARD, Paul. <i>Les Jeux de la Poupée. Illustrés de textes par Paul Eluard.</i> Paris : les Editions Premieres, 1949. €30,000 to 40,000
    <b>Christie’s Paris, Nov 20:</b> [BONNARD, Pierre] - VERLAINE, Paul. <i>Parallèlement.</i> Paris : Imprimerie nationale & Ambroise Vollard, 1900. €30,000 to 40,000
  • <b>Forum Auctions: Fine Books, Manuscripts and Works on Paper. November 29, 2018</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 29:</b> Buffon (G.L.M.L., Comte de). <i>Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux,</i> 10 vol., large paper copy, 973 hand-coloured engraved plates drawn and engraved by Franz Nicolaus Martinet, Paris, 1770-86. £70,000 to 90,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 29:</b> Bible (English). The Holy Bible, first edition of the King James Bible, the Great 'He' Bible, [Robert Barker], 1611. £30,000 to 40,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 29:</b> Marlborough (John Churchill, 1st Duke of).- [Parker (Robert, army officer)] <i>[Memoirs of the remarkable military transactions from the year 1688 to 1718],</i> ?autograph manuscript, 300pp., [c. 1718]. £20,000 to 30,000
    <b>Forum Auctions: Fine Books, Manuscripts and Works on Paper. November 29, 2018</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 29:</b> France.- Paris.- Turgot (Michel Etienne). <i>Plan de Paris,</i> engraved maps, contemporary red morocco, gilt, Paris, 1739. £10,000 to 15,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 29:</b> Mongolia.- Pallas (Peter Simon). <i>Sammlungen Historischer Nachrichten uber die Mongolischen Volkerschaften,</i> first edition, complete with 31 plates, St. Petersburg, 1776-1801. £10,000 to 15,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 29:</b> Brant (Sebastian). <i>Stultifera Navis... The Ship of Fooles, wherein is shewed the folly of all States...,</i> large woodcut title and numerous woodcuts in the text, [London], [John Cawood], 1570. £8,000 to 12,000
    <b>Forum Auctions: Fine Books, Manuscripts and Works on Paper. November 29, 2018</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 29:</b> Aldus.- Boccaccio (Giovanni). <i>Il Decamerone,</i> Venice, House of Aldus & Andrea Torresani, 1522. £8,000 to 12,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 29:</b> Wallace (Alfred Russel). 77pp. of Autograph letters (and 1 postcard) to various people, 1894-1904, on various palaeontological, geological and natural history matters. £8,000 to 12,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 29:</b> DNA.- Watson (James D.) and Francis Crick, <i>Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid,</i> 1953 [and others]. £5,000 to 7,000
    <b>Forum Auctions: Fine Books, Manuscripts and Works on Paper. November 29, 2018</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 29:</b> Optics.- Molyneux (William). <i>Dioptrica nova. A Treatise of Dioptricks, in Two Parts,</i> first edition, for Benj. Tooke, 1692. £5,000 to 7,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 29:</b> Economics.- Mississippi & South Sea Bubbles.- <i>Het Groote Tafereel der Dwaasheid,</i> 74 engraved plates and 3 maps, Amsterdam, 1720. £4,000 to 6,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, Nov. 29:</b> Asia.- Clouet (Jean Baptiste Louis). <i>Carte D'Asie Divisée en ses Principaux Etats,</i> engraved map with hand-colouring, on wooden rollers, 1782. £3,000 to 5,000
  • <b>19th Century Shop:</b> Charles Darwin on sexuality and the transmission of hereditary characteristics: Autograph Letter Signed to Lawson Tait. Down, 17 January [1877].
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> MILTON, JOHN. <i>Paradise Lost. A Poem written in ten books.</i> London: 1667. A very rare example with the contemporary binding untouched and with a 1667 title page.
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> Hamilton secures the ratification of the Constitution: <i>The Debates and Proceedings of the Convention of the State of New-York, assembled at Poughkeespsie, on the 17th June, 1788.</i>
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> The social contract “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains”: ROUSSEAU, JEAN-JACQUES. <i>Principes du Droit Politique [Du Contract Social]</i>. Amsterdam: Michel Rey, 1762
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> “The first English textbook on geometrical land-measurement and surveying”: BENESE, RICHARD. <i>This Boke Sheweth the Maner of Measurynge All Maner of Lande…</i>
  • <b>Christie’s London, 28 November:</b><br>The first edition, in the original wrappers, of the first part of Pushkin’s masterpiece – ‘a bibliographical rarity of the highest order’ (Smirnov-Sokol’skii). £25,000 to £35,000
    <b>Christie’s London, 28 November:</b><br>The very rare first edition of Gogol’s first masterpiece and his first obtainable book. £50,000 to £70,000
    <b>Christie’s London, 28 November:</b><br>The first edition of Dostoevsky's <i>Brat'ia Karamazovy</i> (1830) in a superb contemporary cloth presentation binding. £22,000 to £30,000
    <b>Christie’s London, 28 November:</b><br>The first edition of the first version of the opening of <i>War and Peace,</i> with the original paper covers. £15,000 to £20,000
    <b>Christie’s London, 28 November:</b><br>An early corrected typescript of Akhmatova's <i>Poema bez geroia</i> (July 1946) £20,000 to £30,000
    <b>Christie’s London, 28 November:</b><br>A presentation copy of the first edition of <i>Kamen</i> (1913) inscribed by Mandel'shtam to his early mentor the poet Viacheslav Ivanov. £60,000 to £90,000
    <b>Christie’s London, 28 November:</b><br>Rare autograph correspondence from Vladislav Khodasevich, including a manuscript of his long poem 'Sorrento Photographs' (1921). £10,000 to £15,000
    <b>Christie’s London, 28 November:</b><br>An important letter from Marina Tsvetaeva to the poet Nikolai Tikhonov (1935) in which she challenges Pasternak and his views on poetry. £12,000 to £18,000

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