Rare Book Monthly

Articles - July - 2015 Issue

Two More Stolen Books Returned to the Swedish National Library

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Left to right: FBI New York ASAC Belle Chen; Gunilla Herdenberg, CEO of the National Library of Sweden; Deputy U.S. Attorney Rich Zabel; FBI New York SAC Michael Harpster; and Jerker Ryan and Greger Bergvall, both with the National Library (FBI photo).

Two more books, discovered missing from the National Library of Sweden over a decade ago, made their way back home this past month. They are among at least 56 old and valuable books taken from that library over a decade by a former employee. Slowly, many of the books have been tracked down and returned to their rightful owner. These were the latest, but not the first, to be found in America. As before, they were discovered with innocent purchasers, bought at auctions or from dealers who themselves were unaware that the books were stolen. Thief Anders Burius was very good at disguising the source of his valuable books.

 

Burius was hired by the Swedish Library to head up its manuscript department in 1995. Burius had already been stealing books for a decade by that time, though obviously the library was unaware. Among his responsibilities were increasing security of the collections, particularly after the case of the razor-toting British map thief Peter Bellwood, who also "visited" libraries on the continent, became known. These responsibilities, plus the obvious inside aspects of the thefts, made Burius a clear suspect when they finally were discovered.

 

In 2004, a library patron asked to see an old map of the Mississippi River. It showed up in the library's online database, but was nowhere to be found in the collections. Burius had removed listings from the library's old card system to make the books "disappear," but digital records were evidently more challenging. This led to a thorough inventorying of the collection. By the time it was completed, librarians realized that over 50 books were missing.

 

Burius understood where the fingers would soon be pointing and concluded his discovery was inevitable. He confessed to a colleague and went off to the police station to report what he had done. Burius was immediately arrested and placed in custody. For three weeks, he provided lists of books he had stolen, over 50 from the Swedish Library, and almost as many from other sources. He was then released from custody to await trial. It never happened.

 

In the early morning hours of December 8, 2004, there was a massive explosion on the top floor of the apartment building where Burius lived. He had quite literally chosen to go out with a bang. It took four days to find his body in the debris. Burius had slit both his wrists and the gas line. A spark completed the job. His concern for his neighbors was no greater than his concern for his employer. Eleven people were injured and more had their homes destroyed. The criminal case was closed.

 

Burius had taken many of the books he stole to auction, primarily German house Ketterer Kunst. He used a fake name – Karl Fields – and his knowledge and sophistication with books avoided raising any red flags as to his legitimacy. He certainly did not appear anything like a thief. Meanwhile, he removed all markings from the books that might have caused suspicion. Additionally, since the Swedish National Library was unaware of the thefts at the time, none of the items Burius sold ever showed up on a missing books list. The books were auctioned and among the unsuspecting buyers were some of the top dealers in America. They too were fooled, Burius having done such a good job of covering his tracks. Finally, some books were sold on to customers who likewise were fooled. One of these two books just returned was ultimately purchased by Cornell University. The book had traveled from auction house to bookseller to university without anyone ever being the wiser.

 

Harder to understand is the Swedish Library's slow speed in aggressively pursuing the stolen books. Sometimes, libraries are embarrassed to publicize their shortcomings. Perhaps there was some reluctance in chasing down purchasers when their own deficiencies in security led innocent dealers and collectors to buy their books. A report was issued by the Swedish government in 2008, and there was a Swedish radio documentary in 2009, but the books were no longer in Sweden by then. The case remained mostly dormant until a member of the library staff noticed one of their books being offered for sale by a New York dealer. Once the Arader Galleries was contacted and confirmed the library's claim, they returned the book to Sotheby's, where it was purchased in 2003. They in turn sent the book back to Sweden. In 2013, the 19th Century Shop voluntarily returned a couple of books purchased many years earlier at Ketterer Kunst.

 

This latest return of books covers two antiquarian titles, Oculus, hoc est: fundamentum opticum... a 1619 book by Christopher Scheiner, and Pratica di fabricar scene, e machine ne’teatri, a 1638 book by Nicolo Sabbattini. The FBI makes it simple for us by referring to them as the "Scheiner book" and the "Sabbatini book." The Sabbattini book was purchased by New York bookseller Martayan Lan in 2001. The Scheiner book was purchased by New York bookseller Jonathan A. Hill in 1999 and later sold to Cornell University. Again, no one in the chain had any idea the books had been stolen and the current holders both voluntarily returned the books to the Swedish Library.

 

At a returning ceremony with U.S. officials and representatives of the Swedish Library held in New York, Deputy U.S. Attorney Richard Zabel said, “For hundreds of years, the National Library of Sweden’s collection of books, maps, and manuscripts was treasured by the kings and queens of Sweden. In many ways, the Library contains the cultural memory of Sweden. The theft of pieces of a nation’s memory and heritage creates holes in its intellectual soul. There is no repair for such holes without the recovery of what was taken. I’m proud that this office has been at the forefront of recovering what has been taken from many different nations’ cultural histories, including Sweden today."

 

Book theft is an enormous problem for libraries with valuable collections. Controls have often been lax, and even where not, theft by insiders, who can change records, is particularly difficult to find. Many books are requested so infrequently that it may take years to notice they are missing. In the past few years, libraries have become increasingly aware of the dangers and are taking many steps to combat the problem. Still, it is not an easy challenge, and no one has any idea how many books stolen at earlier times are still out there. Libraries will need not only to step up security but find ways to discover and report missing items much sooner. Burius had a 10-year head start, enough time to fill scattered booksellers' and collectors' shelves with stolen material. Books stolen by earlier generations of thieves are likely gone for good. And all of this is as if libraries don't already have enough problems to deal with today!

Rare Book Monthly

  • <b>Swann Auction Galleries:</b> Luis de Lucena, <i>Arte de Ajedres,</i> first edition of the earliest extant manual on modern chess, Salamanca, circa 1496-97. Sold for $68,750.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries:</b> Carte-de-visite album with 83 images of prominent African Americans & abolitionists, circa 1860s. Sold for $47,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries:</b> Gustav Klimt, <i>Das Werk,</i> Vienna & Leipzig, 1918. Sold for $106,250.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries:</b> Man Ray, <i>[London Transport] – Keeps London Going,</i> 1938. Sold for $149,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries:</b> Thomas Jefferson, Letter Signed, to Major-General Nathanael Greene, promising reinforcements against Cornwallis, 1781. Sold for $35,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries:</b> Nicolas de Fer, <i>L’Amerique Divisee Selon Letendue de ses Principales Parties,</i> Paris, 1713. Sold for $30,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries:</b> Russell H. Tandy, <i>The Secret in the Old Attic,</i> watercolor, pencil & ink, 1944. Sold for $35,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries:</b> Ernest Hemingway, <i>Three Stories & Ten Poems,</i> first edition of the author's first book, Paris, 1923. Sold for $23,750.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries:</b> Walker Evans, <i>River Rouge Plant,</i> silver print, 1947. Sold for $57,500.
  • <b>Chiswick Auctions: Summer Books. August 22, 2018</b>
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Aug. 22:</b> Adams (Richard). <i>Watership Down,</i> FIRST EDITION, author inscription on front free end paper, folded map tipped in, original boards, dust-jacket. £800 to £1,200
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Aug. 22:</b> Bowles (John). <i>Several Prospects of the Most…la Ville de Londres, avec des Remarques Historiques fort Succinctes, qui les Regardant,</i> 20 double page engraved plates only, of 23, 1724. £200 to £300
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Aug. 22:</b> Auden (W.H.). <i>Our Hunting Fathers,</i> FIRST SEPARATE EDITION, 1 of 22 copies, COPY B OF 5 PRINTED ON NORMANDIE, original patterned wrappers, Cambridge, for Frederic Prokosch, 1935. £800 to £1200
    <b>Chiswick Auctions: Summer Books. August 22, 2018</b>
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Aug. 22:</b> Barrie (J. M.) & Attwell (Mabel Lucie, illustrator). <i>Peter Pan & Wendy,</i> FIRST EDITION, 12 chromolithograph plates, publisher's blue cloth, original printed dust jacket, [c.1920]; and 3 others (4). £200 to £300
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Aug. 22:</b> Bartolozzi (Francesco). Genius Calling Forth the Fine Arts to Adorn Manufactures and Commerce; Agriculture (Husbandry Aided by Arts and Commerce), glazed and framed. £200 to £300
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Aug. 22:</b> A collection of engraved caricatures, including Gillray ([James]) Tales of Wonder!, 1802; Rowlandson (Thomas) Sports, Smock Racing, 1811;Irish Jaunting Carr, 1814. £400 to £600
    <b>Chiswick Auctions: Summer Books. August 22, 2018</b>
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Aug. 22:</b> Bennett (Charles H, illustrator). <i>Æsop’s Fables,</i> 1875; Buchanan (Robert). <i>Ballad Stories of the Affections,</i> [1866]; Douce (Francis), The Dance of Death, 1833. £200 to £300
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Aug. 22:</b> Chinese Illustrations. A group of 6 Cantonese rice paper illustrations, depicting scenes of torture with different instruments, gouache, c.340 x 220mm, original wrapper boards preserved, [c. 1800]. £200 to £300
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Aug. 22:</b> Dulac (Edmund). <i>The Queen of Romania, The Dreamer of Dreams,</i> 5 coloured plates, [1915]; and others illustrated by Edmund Dulac. £300 to £400
    <b>Chiswick Auctions: Summer Books. August 22, 2018</b>
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Aug. 22:</b> Fronth (Per). Xingu Chronicles, the portfolio, comprising 30 plates, photogravues in colours, each signed, dated and titled in pencil, each numbered 10/35, on wove paper, 790 x 600 x 60mm, 1997. £300 to £400
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Aug. 22:</b> Pasternak (Boris). <i>Doctor Zhivago,</i> FIRST ENGLISH EDITION, original red publisher’s cloth, pictorial dust jacket, 4to, Collins & Harvill Press, 1958. £200 to £300
    <b>Chiswick Auctions, Aug. 22:</b> 13 sepia photographs of visitors to the Thermes Nationaux d’Aix-les-Bains, c. 150 x 105mm, c.1890 (12). £300 to £400
  • <b>Bonhams: September 25, New York</b>
    <b>Bonhams, June 12 results:</b> SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM. <i>The Tragedie of Julius Caesar.</i> London, 1623. 1st appearance in print, Complete from the First Folio. Sold for $175,000
    <b>Bonhams, June 12 results:</b> Ernst, Max. <i>Mr. Knife and Miss Fork</i>. Paris, 1932. DELUXE EDITION. Sold for $15,625
    <b>Bonhams, June 12 results:</b> Cage, John. Autograph musical leaf from his Concert for Piano and Orchestra, NY, 1958. Sold for $18,750
    <b>Bonhams: September 25, New York</b>
    <b>Bonhams, June 12 results:</b> Einstein, Albert. Signed Passport Photo for his US citizenship application. Bermuda, 1935. Sold for $17,500
    <b>Bonhams, June 12 results:</b> Verard, Antoine. Illuminated printed Book of Hours. Paris, 1507. Sold for $7,500
    <b>Bonhams, June 12 results:</b> Wetterkurzschlussel. German Weather Report Codebook - for Enigma use. Berlin, 1942. Sold for $225,000
    <b>Bonhams: September 25, New York</b>
    <b>Bonhams, June 12 results:</b> Morelos y Pavon, Jose Maria. Autograph letter signed to El Virrey Venegas, February 5, 1812. Sold for $6,250
    <b>Bonhams, June 12 results:</b> Milne, A.A. Complete set of <i>Winnie-the-Pooh</i> books. 4 volumes. All first issue points. London, 1924-1928. Sold for $5,250
    <b>Bonhams, June 12 results:</b> A 48-star American Flag, battle worn flown at Guadalcanal and Peleliu, 1942-1944. Sold for $35,000
    <b>Bonhams, June 12 results:</b> Locke, John. Autograph Letter Signed mourning the death of his friend, William Molyneaux, 2 pp, October 27, 1698. Sold for $20,000
  • <b>19th Century Shop:</b> Charles Darwin on sexuality and the transmission of hereditary characteristics: Autograph Letter Signed to Lawson Tait. Down, 17 January [1877].
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> MILTON, JOHN. <i>Paradise Lost. A Poem written in ten books.</i> London: 1667. A very rare example with the contemporary binding untouched and with a 1667 title page.
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> Hamilton secures the ratification of the Constitution: <i>The Debates and Proceedings of the Convention of the State of New-York, assembled at Poughkeespsie, on the 17th June, 1788.</i>
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> The social contract “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains”: ROUSSEAU, JEAN-JACQUES. <i>Principes du Droit Politique [Du Contract Social]</i>. Amsterdam: Michel Rey, 1762
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> “The first English textbook on geometrical land-measurement and surveying”: BENESE, RICHARD. <i>This Boke Sheweth the Maner of Measurynge All Maner of Lande…</i>

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