• <b>Forum Auctions: Online Sale of Cricket Books and Works on Paper. Now through July 5, 2017</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions, now thru Jul 5:</b> Wisden (John). <i>Cricketers' Almanack for 1896</i>, original cloth, 1896. £15,000 to 20,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, now thru Jul 5:</b> Wisden (John). <i>The Cricketers' Almanack for the year 1869</i>, excellent copy of the scarce sixth edition, 1869. £10,000 to 15,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, now thru Jul 5:</b> Wisden (John). <i>Cricketers' Almanack for 1916</i>, with tribute to W.G. Grace by Lord Harris, original cloth, 1916. £5,000 to 6,000
    <b>Forum Auctions: Online Sale of Cricket Books and Works on Paper. Now through July 5, 2017</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions, now thru Jul 5:</b> Lillywhite (Frederick) and Arthur Haygarth. <i>Cricket Scores and Biographies of Celebrated Cricketers</i>, vol. 1 - 16 [a complete run], 1862-2003. £750 to 1,000
    <b>Forum Auctions, now thru Jul 5:</b> Trumper (Victor). Postcard of Victor Trumper, signed by Trumper on image, 1905. £300 to 400
    <b>Forum Auctions, now thru Jul 5:</b> Crombie (Charles). <i>Laws of Cricket</i>, 1907; and 29 others. £150 to 200
  • <b>Sotheby’s London: English Literature, History, Children’s Books and Illustrations, including The Garrett Herman Collection: The Age of Darwin. July 11, 2017</b>
    <b>Sotheby’s, Jul 11:</b> Austen, Jane. Autograph letter, written in the third person, to her niece Anna Austen (later Lefroy), 1812. £80,000 to 100,000
    <b>Sotheby’s, Jul 11:</b> Smith, Adam. <i>An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations</i>. London: Printed for W. Strahan; And T. Cadell, 1776. £50,000 to 70,000
    <b>Sotheby’s, Jul 11:</b> Darwin, Charles. <i>On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life</i>. John Murray, 1859. £50,000 to 70,000
    <b>Sotheby’s London: English Literature, History, Children’s Books and Illustrations, including The Garrett Herman Collection: The Age of Darwin. July 11, 2017</b>
    <b>Sotheby’s, Jul 11:</b> Dickens, Charles. Autograph draft manuscript of "Mrs Gamp with the Strolling Players,” 1847. £40,000 to 60,000
    <b>Sotheby’s, Jul 11:</b> Shepard, E.H. Two drawings from <i>Winnie-The-Pooh</i> comprising “Why, what’s the matter?” and “He was taking the balloon out…” £40,000 to 60,000
    <b>Sotheby’s, Jul 11:</b> Blake, William. <i>Illustrations of the Book of Job. Invented and Engraved by William Blake. Published as the Act Directs...By William Blake, 8 March 1825</i> [1826]. £20,000 to 30,000
  • <b>Cowan’s Auctions: An Eclectic Collection: The Library of the Late Dr. Ivan Gilbert of Columbus.<br>June 5-26</b>
    <b>Cowan’s, June 5-26:</b> [Voyages and Travel] Churchill's Voyages 1732 - Complete in 6 Volumes.<br>$5,000 - $7,500.
    <b>Cowan’s, June 5-26:</b> [Illustrated] Alice by Salvador Dali, Signed and Limited. $3,000 - $5,000
    <b>Cowan’s, June 5-26:</b> [Literature] The Little Prince - Signed/Limited First French Edition, 1943; #61 of 260. $5,000 - $7,500
    <b>Cowan’s Auctions: An Eclectic Collection: The Library of the Late Dr. Ivan Gilbert of Columbus.<br>June 5-26</b>
    <b>Cowan’s, June 5-26:</b> [Literature] Gone With The Wind, 1st in DJ, May, 1936. $1,500 - $2,500
    <b>Cowan’s, June 5-26:</b> [Literature - Modern Firsts] Rare Henry Miller, Tropic of Cancer, Obelisk Press Paris - 1934. $2,000 - $3,000
    <b>Cowan’s, June 5-26:</b> [[Sporting - Fishing] Rare - Lee Sturges, Salmon Fishing New Brunswick, 1 of 50 Printed - 7 Original Etchings.<br>$4,000 - $6,000
    <b>Cowan’s Auctions: An Eclectic Collection: The Library of the Late Dr. Ivan Gilbert of Columbus.<br>June 5-26</b>
    <b>Cowan’s, June 5-26:</b> [Voyages and Travel - Maritime] Rare Ledyard Account of Cook's Last Voyage, 1783 Hartford, Howes "d".<br>$10,000 - $15,000
    <b>Cowan’s, June 5-26:</b> [Illustrated - Maxfield Parrish] Knave of Hearts, Scribner's, 1st Hardback Edition, 1925 Parrish Illustrations.<br>$750 - $1,000
    <b>Cowan’s, June 5-26:</b> [Bible - Illustrated - Cartography) Massive Dutch Bible, 1682, Contemporary Colored Maps, Working Brass Clasps. $2,500 - $3,500
    <b>Cowan’s Auctions: An Eclectic Collection: The Library of the Late Dr. Ivan Gilbert of Columbus.<br>June 5-26</b>
    <b>Cowan’s, June 5-26:</b> [Women Suffrage - Civil Rights - Autographs] A Unique Extra-Illustrated Life of Susan B. Anthony. $15,000 - $20,000
    <b>Cowan’s, June 5-26:</b> [18th Century French Manuscript] Unpublished History of Belle-Isle-En-Mer, 1754 With Watercolor Illustration.<br>$10,000 - $15,000
    <b>Cowan’s, June 5-26:</b> [Illustrated - Children's - Movable] Wonderful 19th Century Lothar Meggendorfer Moveable Book. $750 - $1,000
  • <b>Bonhams, inviting consignments for Sep 27:</b> Newton. <i>Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica</i>. London, 1687.
    <b>Bonhams, inviting consignments for Sep 27:</b> Josephus. <i>De antiquitate Judaica.</i> Lubeck, 1475-76.
    <b>Bonhams, inviting consignments for Sep 27:</b> Carlerius. <i>Sporta fragmentorum, Sportula fragmentorum</i>. Brussels, 1478-79.
    <b>Bonhams, inviting consignments for Sep 27:</b> Fridolin. <i>Der Schatzbehalter</i>. Nuremberg, 1491.
    <b>Bonhams, inviting consignments for Sep 27:</b> Pinder. <i>Der beschlossen gart des rosenkrantz marie</i>. Nuremberg, 1505.
    <b>Bonhams, inviting consignments for Sep 27:</b> Isidorus Hispalensis. <i>Synonyma de Homine</i>. Nuremberg, 1470-71.
    <b>Bonhams, inviting consignments for Sep 27:</b> Durer. Sammelband including <i>Underweysung der messing</i>. Nuremberg, 1525-29.

Rare Book Monthly

Articles - June - 2015 Issue

William Reese - Celebrates 40th Anniversary: The "expert's expert" known for his scholarship and finesse.

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William Reese, 60, the noted expert on rare Americana is celebrating his 40th year in the antiquarian book trade.

"Work hard for 20 years and then only buy things you've never seen before," says William (Bill) Reese, who will be 60 in July. Reese is one of the premier dealers in antiquarian Americana and considered the expert's expert in the buying and selling of rare books and manuscripts in that field. The quote is from Wright Howes, Chicago bookseller active 1920-60 and author of the standard reference work, U.S.iana. But the advice is pure Reese.

"In the modern scheme of things," he adds, "there are only three possibilities, the best copy, the least expensive copy, and the only copy."

Reese, who heads the antiquarian firm which bears his name, is based in New Haven, Connecticut. He is celebrating his 40th anniversary in the trade this year. His catalog to mark that occasion is filled with fifty stellar items including a manuscript copy of the 1765 Stamp and Sugar tax acts, authored by the English, which paved the way to the Boston Tea Party and the American Revolution. Asking price $2 million.

Said Reese, "The two acts – the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act, which are sold together – are the triggering points in the path to American Independence.  One might say these are the hinge of American history.  These are the original manuscripts.  Other American historical documents have sold for much more without having the significance of these documents. For example, Washington’s copy of the first Acts of Congress sold for over $8 million. For one of the most important pairs of documents in American history to be worth $2 million when one can hardly buy a painting of importance for that sum, does not seem extravagant."

Reese is noted for his cool authority and confident scholarship. Collectors and buyers trust his eye for innate value and knowledge, not only what to buy but when. One story he tells is about the Gettysburg Address offered in 2004 at auction at the 2nd Malcolm Forbes sale. Reese bought it for $300K, raised the price to $600K and then found an international university to take it at $850,000, and think it was well worth the price.

As he recalls, "Shortly after I bought it I was asked what I would take for it and said $600,000 on the theory of a quick turnover. But I always envisioned it as being worth more, so it’s not like I was raising the price beyond my original idea of value.  This auction was a perfect instance of what I call 'hiding in plain sight.'  At major sales, where the big buyers are trying for lots of expensive things, in my experience something always falls through the cracks because everyone is stretching to get what they most want."

Reese's career trajectory has been different from most of his colleagues. He started dealing from his dorm room as a Yale undergraduate. A $40,000 personal loan from his family allowed him to launch his business and purchase his first collection. "I paid it back within six months," he said, and has been going strong ever since.

Reese's association with Yale and Yale's Beinecke Library is also ongoing.

"I have worked closely with the Yale Library since my undergraduate years.  I endowed a number of fellowships at Beinecke, and annually fund fellowships there and to send Yale librarians to Rare Book School."

According to Reese he was on the committee for the new Music Library and personally raised the funds for its Rare Book Room. He served as the chairman of their friends group, Yale Library Associates, from 2005 to 2013 and has been a trustee for decades.  He is currently vice chair of the Library Development Council, which coordinates major gifts.  

"I served for some time as advisor to the Western Americana Collection in Beinecke.  When the Forbes Smiley map thefts took place, I was asked to take over the internal investigation, which I coordinated with Yale and the FBI."

His company has generally handled the Beinecke’s auction bids in the U.S.  When Reese served as the main appraiser and book advisor to the estate of Paul Mellon, he coordinated the transfer of all of the materials given to Yale.

He has also curated a number of exhibitions in the Beinecke, including the 1992 Columbian Quincentenary show and the Mellon memorial show in 2002 (both of which have published catalogues).

A generous patron, Reese has also given the Library numerous things, including comprehensive collections of the British World War I poets, Robert Graves and Siegfried Sassoon. "On the flip side," he said, "Yale has been a major customer of mine over the years, and I’ve sold them many wonderful things over the decades."

 

In Reese's view two of the most important ingredients for a successful dealer are "contacts and capital." Lacking capital he recommends: "1) more contacts, especially visiting customers in person to understand what they want; and 2) to seek to turn inventory over as rapidly as possible, which is a lot easier if you know exactly what your customers want."

In answer to the question "What advice would you give to others on how to achieve expert status and the credibility that comes with it?" he replied:

"Try to be a scholar, by which I mean issue catalogues with respectable research and good writing.  Take part in scholarly conferences.  If the spirit moves you, do research for publication."

As for the current debate on the values for items at auction vs. those purchased through dealers, in his opinion it's not where you buy but how:

"The most important part of any antiquarian business is buying right.  I see many dealers not thinking through before they buy what they think they can sell an item for. This is especially true at auctions, where it’s easy to get carried away and go one more bid. Iron discipline in what one will pay means you don’t buy a lot of things you’d like to.  But auctions are very imperfect markets, and there are opportunities."

One of the things Reese has done consistently since his earliest years is owning books in partnership with other dealers. He pointed out this practice, "halves the capital investment and opens up new potential customers.  I don’t think it doubles them because some customers, especially the big institutions, are known to all; but many private buyers deal with only a few dealers or the ones with whom they’ve established a good relationship."

In his own dealings Reese quoted JP Morgan's famous 1913 opinion, "Character outweighs collateral." In his view, "If you trust one another it can survive on a handshake."

"I believe successful partnerships rely on rigorous inventory control and bookkeeping," he continued," and that the partners must have absolute confidence in the honesty and reliability, personal and financial, of their partners.  Clarence Wolf of George MacManus Co., one of my primary partners, is someone I’ve known for forty-five years.  In all that time we’ve never had a misunderstanding over a business transaction."

After 40 years in the trade he noted that often times the same material previously sold comes to market again. The market, he observed, does recycle, but many of the best things are more or less permanently out of reach and the hardest part of his job is "finding the good material."

Reese didn't have a lot of predictions, but one thing he sees in the future is smaller and lesser special collections will eventually come to market:

"It’s inevitable that many institutions won’t be able to afford the luxury of a rare book collection.  The mission of city libraries should be to help people get access to information, and today that means computer terminals.  For a small college, if I were the librarian and had to choose between the cost of subscribing to online assets that would bring millions of books to my students, or special collections, I’d choose the former. These are not choices anyone wants to make. It’s easy to attack the de-accessioning institutions, but in the economic environment most of these places are in, the missions of access and education have to come first."

As for the trade itself, it's his view that it was "far easier to start in the business forty years ago.  The big advantage to an unknown dealer was the institutional buyers, who were generally very democratic: they bought from whomever had what they needed.  To private buyers, who now dominate the top end of the market, reputation and experience are most important."

"Bill Reese has been my dealer for 25 years," said one of his upscale clients who characterized him as “independently wealthy and very very smart."

With Reese, he continued, "money, per se, does not play the deciding role. Where the next dollar is coming from is never his motivation. As the seller he always takes the long view.  If he issues it in a catalog at $5,000, he’s not going to cut the price, and re-catalog it lower. He’s sure of himself on value and importance.  If he says it’s valuable it’s because he’s certain and his opinion is widely respected."

To which Reese responded "I guess I could be called independently wealthy now, but I wasn't when I started." As for taking the "long view,” he termed it "an advantage of accumulating some capital, which is hardly unique to the rare book business."

To dealers who haven't reached his own lofty heights, Reese gives the following advice:

1.      "The most important thing is buying right so you can sell right.

2.      Play to your strengths.  It’s better to be the master of some genre, no matter how small, and build out from there.

3.      Hit the road and see people all you can, not just at shows.  A personal visit builds relationships and helps you know what your customers really want.

4.      Do right by others and it will mostly come back.  That’s a maxim for all business.  I’ve gone out of my way to help many colleagues and scholars without expecting any return, and it’s come back to help me in ways I never would have expected."

While he stressed the importance of "continued application of knowledge," he was also quick to point out the role played by "the lucky chance, serendipity, you may want to believe in a perfect market but …. books are as imperfect as possible."

"The Internet has flattened the steep learning curve and made information accessible that formerly was only cult knowledge.  Know what you do, figure out what is important, many people miss things because they fail to see the significance, there will be some bargains, wait - watch."

------------------------

Links

William Reese Company, New Haven, Conn.: www.reeseco.com

All Reese catalogs links: www.williamreesecompany.com/shop/reeseco/catalogs.html

40 years a Bookseller Catalog #322 (2015) 50 items -- pdf file: www.williamreesecompany.com/reeseco/images/pdfs/cat322.pdf

(Video) William Reese interviewed by Michael Ginsberg for 2010 ABAA video (about 24 minutes): www.youtube.com/watch?v=F4H9HC18OL0

Grolier Club, Books in Hard Times, 2009, includes papers by numerous contributors including Reese

www.grolierclub.org/default.aspx?p=DynamicModule&pageid=293990&ssid=175123&vnf=1.

Reese's contribution: Rare Book Market Today www.grolierclub.org/Files/2.1.ReeseDESIGNED.pdf.

Reach William Reese and his staff via email at: coreese@reeseco.com.

 

 


Posted On: 2015-06-19 21:26
User Name: npzinos

Thanks for the advice. Mr. Reese. As a relatively young rare book dealer I find this type of information very helpful.

Nick Zinos of Zinos Books
St. Paul, Minnesota


Rare Book Monthly

  • <b>19th Century Shop’s Catalog 170 Great Books and Photos. Please inquire for a copy.</b>
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> Exodus 10:10 to 16:15. Complete Biblical scroll sheet in Hebrew, a Torah scroll panel. Middle East, ca. 10th or 11th century.
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> Copernicus Refuted. (Astronomy.). Scientific manuscript of a course of studies at Collège de la Trinité, Lyon. 1660s.
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> Israel’s War of Independence and the Early Days of the IDF. 58 photographs presented to Israel Ber, IDF officer and later convicted spy.
    <b>19th Century Shop’s Catalog 170 Great Books and Photos. Please inquire for a copy.</b>
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> Early Unpublished Darwin letter on the races of man. Autograph Letter Signed [to Henry Denny]. Down, Kent, June 1, [1844].
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> Classic Image of American Slavery. Kimball, M. H. <i>Emancipated Slaves</i>. New York: George Hanks, 1863.
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> (Underground Railroad.) Scaggs, Isaac. Important Runaway Slave Poster: $500 Reward Ran away, or decoyed from the subscriber…
  • <b>Swann Auction Galleries: Inviting Quality Consignments</b>
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 30:</b> Carte-de-visite album featuring a previously unrecorded image of Harriet Tubman, 1860s. Sold for $161,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Jun 7:</b> Hovhannes Amira Dadian, first world atlas in Armenian, Venice, 1849. Sold for $37,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries May 16:</b> T.E. Lawrence, <i>Seven Pillars of Wisdom</i>, privately printed edition, inscribed, London, 1926. Sold for $62,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries: Inviting Quality Consignments</b>
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Feb 14:</b> 22 large-format photographs from NASA missions, 1965-84. Sold for $43,750.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 21: </b> Charles M. Schulz, <i>Here Comes the Big Polar Bear</i>, pen & ink, 4-panel Peanuts comic strip, 1957. Sold for $12,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries May 4:</b> Elliott Erwitt, photograph of JFK & Eisenhower, signed by both, 1960. Sold for $32,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries: Inviting Quality Consignments</b>
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Mar 9:</b> John Milton, <i>Paradise Lost</i>, first edition, London, 1668. Sold for $22,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Mar 30:</b> Frederick Douglass, Autograph Letter Signed to George Alfred Townsend, Washington, 1880. Sold for $100,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26:</b> <i>Les Maîtres de l'Affiche</i>, 5 volumes, Paris, 1896-1900. Sold for $47,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries: Inviting Quality Consignments</b>
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries May 16:</b> James Joyce, <i>Ulysses</i>, first edition, number 724 on handmade paper, Paris, 1922. Sold for $33,750.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Mar 9:</b> Single leaf of the Gutenberg Bible, Mainz, 1455, in a copy of Newton's <i>A Noble Fragment</i>. Sold for $52,500.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries Apr 27:</b> The Book of Mormon, first edition, Palmyra, NY, 1830. Sold for $52,500.
  • <b>Pierre Bergé and Associés in association with Sotheby’s:<br>De la musique avant toute chose… June 28, 2017</b>
    <b>Pierre Bergé and Associés in association with Sotheby’s, Jun 28:</b> Roland de Lassus. [Songs and madrigals]. Album gathering three collections of secular music for tenor. 15.000-20.000 €
    <b>Pierre Bergé and Associés in association with Sotheby’s, Jun 28:</b> Richard Wagner. <i>Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.</i> Original edition corrected and annotated by Wagner. 60.000-80.000 €
    <b>Pierre Bergé and Associés in association with Sotheby’s, Jun 28:</b> Claude Debussy. <i>La Damoiselle élue</i>. Lyrical poem, after D.-G. Rossetti. Limited edition of 160 copies. 6.000-8.000 €
    <b>Pierre Bergé and Associés in association with Sotheby’s:<br>De la musique avant toute chose… June 28, 2017</b>
    <b>Pierre Bergé and Associés in association with Sotheby’s, Jun 28:</b> Stéphane Mallarmé. Handwritten notebook made by Geneviève Mallarmé. No place or date [circa 1910]. 10.000-15.000 €
    <b>Pierre Bergé and Associés in association with Sotheby’s, Jun 28:</b> Henri Sauguet. <i>Les Forains</i>. Ballet. Reduction for piano. Original edition. 20.000-30.000 €
    <b>Pierre Bergé and Associés in association with Sotheby’s, Jun 28:</b> Athanasius Kircher. <i>Musurgia Universalis sive Ars Magna Consoni et Dissoni in X. Libros digesta.</i> 1650. 30.000-40.000 €
    <b>Pierre Bergé and Associés in association with Sotheby’s:<br>De la musique avant toute chose… June 28, 2017</b>
    <b>Pierre Bergé and Associés in association with Sotheby’s, Jun 28:</b> François Villon, & Clément Marot. <i>Les Œuvres de François Villon de Paris, Reviewed and gathered by Clement Marot.</i> 15.000-20.000 €
    <b>Pierre Bergé and Associés in association with Sotheby’s, Jun 28:</b> Rainer Maria Rilke. <i>Larenopfer</i> (Offrande aux dieux Lares). The second collection of Rainer Maria Rilke, containing ninety poems. 6.000-8.000 €
    <b>Pierre Bergé and Associés in association with Sotheby’s, Jun 28:</b> Paul Éluard. <i>Capitale de la douleur.</i> One of the most beautiful poetic collections from the first surrealist wave. 15.000-20.000 €
    <b>Pierre Bergé and Associés in association with Sotheby’s, Jun 28:</b> Pierre de Ronsard. <i>Les Amours</i> ... newly augmented by him, and commented by Marc Antoine de Muret. 40.000-60.000 €
  • <b>Potter & Potter Auctions, July 8: Rare Books & Manuscripts</b>
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions July 8:</b><br> Walter Gibson's Complete Run of The Shadow. 48 bound volumes, 1931-44. $8,000-12,000
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions July 8:</b><br> Frederic Shoberl, The World in Miniature: Hindoostan. 6 volumes. $2,000-4,000
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions July 8:</b><br> A Rare Copy of the Earliest Chicago Newspaper to Report on the Great Fire of 1871. $6,000-8,000
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions, July 8: Rare Books & Manuscripts</b>
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions July 8:</b><br> Broadside Proclamation by Mayor Roswell B. Mason for the Preservation of Good Order Following the Great Fire of 1871. Chicago. $4,000-6,000
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions July 8:</b><br> Peter Force Engraving of the Declaration of Independence. One page. Scarce and highly collectable. $15,000-20,000
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions July 8:</b><br> John Quincy Adams. The Jubilee of the Constitution. A Discourse. First edition. Inscribed. 1839. $3,000-5,000
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions, July 8: Rare Books & Manuscripts</b>
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions July 8:</b><br> Cuban Revolution: Expedicion y Desembarco del “Granma.” Havana, ca. 1959. With portraits of the Castro brothers & Che Guevara. $150-250
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions July 8:</b><br> Osuna Ramos. A group of 28 photographs of the Mexican Revolution & aftermath in Mexico City, 1910-1920. 4½ x 6”. $400-600
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions July 8:</b><br> Charles Bukowski. Hot Water Music. First edition with original signed painting. 1983. $2,000-4,000
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions, July 8: Rare Books & Manuscripts</b>
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions July 8:</b><br> Alan Ginsberg. Five Page Autographed Letter. Signed. February 10, 1971. $3,000-5,000
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions July 8:</b><br> Andy Warhol’s Children’s Book. Featuring 12 color illustrations. Signed 5 times. 1983. $5,000-7,000
    <b>Potter & Potter Auctions July 8:</b><br> Albrecht Durer. The Martyrdom Saint John the Evangelist. Woodcut, 1511 edition. $1,000-2,000

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