• <b>Swann Auction Galleries June 21:</b> Thomas Paine, Autograph Letter Signed to Ira Allen, on a rendezvous at the Boston–a Paris café for political exiles, 1790s. $10,000 to $15,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries June 21:</b> Paul Revere, Autograph Document Signed, certifying the discharge of a captain from his regiment, 1779. $12,000 to $18,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries June 21:</b> Pay order to express rider Jonathan Park to warn Congress of arriving British warships, 1776. $20,000 to $30,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries June 21:</b> Thomas Jefferson, Autograph Letter Signed to Thomas Sim Lee, stating that the government is not authorized to intervene in the Citizen Genêt affair, 1793. $20,000 to $30,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries June 21:</b> George Washington, Letter Signed to Nathanael Greene, suggesting a way to obtain money for the Continental Army, 1780. $15,000 to $25,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries June 21:</b> Andrew Jackson, Autograph Letter Signed to Senator John H. Eaton, on the Seminole Wars & Spain’s duplicity, 1819. $12,000 to $18,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries June 21:</b> Harry S. Truman, Photograph Signed and Inscribed, showing a false newspaper headline about the 1948 presidential election. $12,000 to $18,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries June 21:</b> Benjamin Franklin, vellum Document Signed, as President of the Supreme Executive Council of PA, 1786. $8,000 to $12,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries June 21:</b> Henry Dearborn, two Autograph Manuscript items including a drawing of Bunker’s Hill, unsigned, 1818. $6,000 to $9,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries June 21:</b> Andrew Jackson, <i>A New Map of the United States,</i> lithograph, circa 1828. $3,000 to $4,000.
  • <b>Cowan’s Auctions: American History - Premier Auction. June 22, 2018</b>
    <b>Cowan’s, June 22:</b> General George Custer's Officer, James McLean Steele, 1868-1869 Diary. $30,000 - $50,000
    <b>Cowan’s, June 22:</b> Exceptionally Rare Anti-Slavery Broadside, “A Crusade Against Slavery”. $4,000 - $6,000
    <b>Cowan’s, June 22:</b> Revolutionary War General Richard Montgomery, Exceptionally Rare War-Date ANS. $4,000 - $6,000
    <b>Cowan’s Auctions: American History - Premier Auction. June 22, 2018</b>
    <b>Cowan’s, June 22:</b> Albumen Photograph of the "Scouts of the Plains," from Cody's Personal Collection. $8,000 - $10,000
    <b>Cowan’s, June 22:</b> Jefferson Davis, CDV, Signed and Dated to his Imprisonment in Fortress Monroe. $4,000 - $6,000
    <b>Cowan’s, June 22:</b> Robert E. Lee, CDV Signed Twice. $2,000 - $4,000
    <b>Cowan’s Auctions: American History - Premier Auction. June 22, 2018</b>
    <b>Cowan’s, June 22:</b> “Si Clack: Co. Q, 100th Indiana Vols.,” Written & Illustrated by Civil War Veteran, P.M. Radford. $2,500 - $3,500
    <b>Cowan’s, June 22:</b> General Meade Inspecting the 5th Corps, Civil War-Era Sketch by Alfred R. Waud. $2,000 - $3,000
    <b>Cowan’s, June 22:</b> Rare Huey Newton Black Panther Party Poster. $3,000 - $5,000
    <b>Cowan’s Auctions: American History - Premier Auction. June 22, 2018</b>
    <b>Cowan’s, June 22:</b> Lloyd's New Political Chart, 1861. $800 - $1,200
    <b>Cowan’s, June 22:</b> William J. Ferguson, “Our American Cousin” Cast Member, Lincoln Assassination Archive. $8,000 - $10,000
    <b>Cowan’s, June 22:</b> Albert Einstein, Signed Photograph in his Favorite Leather Jacket. $2,000 - $4,000
  • <b>19th Century Shop:</b> Charles Darwin on sexuality and the transmission of hereditary characteristics: Autograph Letter Signed to Lawson Tait. Down, 17 January [1877].
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> MILTON, JOHN. <i>Paradise Lost. A Poem written in ten books.</i> London: 1667. A very rare example with the contemporary binding untouched and with a 1667 title page.
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> Hamilton secures the ratification of the Constitution: <i>The Debates and Proceedings of the Convention of the State of New-York, assembled at Poughkeespsie, on the 17th June, 1788.</i>
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> The social contract “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains”: ROUSSEAU, JEAN-JACQUES. <i>Principes du Droit Politique [Du Contract Social]</i>. Amsterdam: Michel Rey, 1762
    <b>19th Century Shop:</b> “The first English textbook on geometrical land-measurement and surveying”: BENESE, RICHARD. <i>This Boke Sheweth the Maner of Measurynge All Maner of Lande…</i>
  • <b>Bonhams: Fine Books and Manuscripts. June 12, 2018</b>
    <b>Bonhams, June 12:</b> Ortelius. Theatrum orbis terrarum. Antwerp, 1570. FIRST EDITION. $50,000 to $80,000
    <b>Bonhams, June 12:</b> Shakespeare, William. The Tragedie of Julius Caesar. London, 1623. 1st appearance in print, Complete from the First Folio. $50,000 to $70,000
    <b>Bonhams, June 12:</b> Ernst, Max. Mr. Knife and Miss Fork. Paris, 1932. DELUXE EDITION. $12,000 to $18,000
    <b>Bonhams: Fine Books and Manuscripts. June 12, 2018</b>
    <b>Bonhams, June 12:</b> Cage, John. Autograph musical leaf from his Concert for Piano and Orchestra, NY, 1958. $10,000 to $15,000
    <b>Bonhams, June 12:</b> Einstein, Albert. Signed Passport Photo for his US citizenship application. Bermuda, 1935. $8,000 to $12,000
    <b>Bonhams, June 12:</b> Verard, Antoine. Illuminated printed Book of Hours. Paris, 1507. $8,000 to $12,000
    <b>Bonhams: Fine Books and Manuscripts. June 12, 2018</b>
    <b>Bonhams, June 12:</b> Wetterkurzschlussel. German Weather Report Codebook - for Enigma use. Berlin, 1942. $20,000 to $30,000
    <b>Bonhams, June 12:</b> Morelos y Pavon, Jose Maria. Autograph letter signed to El Virrey Venegas, February 5, 1812. $7,000 to $10,000
    <b>Bonhams: Fine Books and Manuscripts. June 12, 2018</b>
    <b>Bonhams, June 12:</b> Milne, A.A. Complete set of Winnie-the-Pooh books. 4 volumes. All first issue points. London, 1924-1928. $6,000 to $9,000
    <b>Bonhams, June 12:</b> A 48-star American Flag, battle worn flown at Guadalcanal and Peleliu, 1942-1944. $10,000 to $15,000
    <b>Bonhams, June 12:</b> Locke, John. Autograph Letter Signed mourning the death of his friend, William Molyneaux, 2 pp, October 27, 1698. $7,000 to $10,000

Rare Book Monthly

Articles - March - 2015 Issue

Foxe News: A Leaf from a Rare but Influential 16th Century English Book

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Foxe's Martyrs.

Recently we received a newly published magnificent leaf book. We will stay away from vagaries of official book sizes to note that it is 10” x 14”, bound in full calf leather, and ornamented in intricate gold patterns. The leaf within just surpassed 450 years in age. Complete editions of the book from which it came are known to exist in fewer than 10 copies. At the time it was published (1563), no book in the English language other than the Bible was so large. Next to the Bible, it was probably the most influential book of 16th century England. It was also quite controversial.

 

The title of this book is A Leaf from the First Edition of the Actes and Monuments Commonly Known As Foxe's Book of Martyrs 1563. The original Book of Martyrs (not its actual title, but its later common name, like Shakespeare's “First Folio”) was written by John Foxe, who lived from 1516 or 1517 to 1587. This leaf book contains an introduction from Benjamin L. Crawford and a lengthy historical essay by Wallace Thornton, Jr.

 

To understand the book, we need to understand its times. Foxe came of age just as the Protestant Reformation was taking hold. It had spread through parts of Europe beginning with the second decade of the 16th century. It would reach England somewhat later, and under different circumstances. In England, the Reformation would be driven by King Henry VIII's personal wishes to divorce his wife, which was rejected by the Pope. However, Foxe's issue which led to his strong support for the Reformation had nothing to do with Henry's personal desires, or attempts to curry his favor. Foxe was driven by theological issues, and his personal interests took a backseat to his deep religious beliefs throughout his life.

 

Life in the 16th century was very different from today. Foxe's book was controversial then, and for some still today. By today's standards, many things Foxe said would be deemed anti-Catholic. Many views held by his opponents would be seen today as anti-Protestant. This is a different time. Today, Christians of all different beliefs would be expected to discuss, debate, and explain their points of view, and if differences remained, sit down and enjoy a friendly meal together. Back then, they burned each other alive. It is very difficult to have a friendly, reasonable discussion with those who seek to burn you at the stake. Hence, viewpoints of the era can seem harsh today. We recently saw, in another part of the world, a group with medieval religious beliefs burn a man to death. We have no wish to talk with such people. This was the context within which the Protestant John Foxe wrote his Book of Martyrs. It should be noted that for his time, Foxe was a very gentle and sympathetic man, though he is unlikely to be a favorite of Catholics even today.

 

By the time of the Reformation, the Catholic Church had been the sole representative of Christianity in the western world for almost a millennium and a half. Few institutions can survive a small fraction of that time without any corrupting influences. It led some to seek God directly, going around the Church they felt acted as a doorkeeper more than a facilitator. What exactly turned Foxe in this direction is not clear, but as he finished his university studies, he found himself looking to the Word, the Bible, not the Church for his way. As we noted, these were contentious times, and being on the wrong side of this issue could prove detrimental to one's career. It limited Foxe's opportunities, which rather than bringing him back to the fold, reenforced his beliefs. He began looking at Church history, and to pre-Protestant “martyrs,” those who had suffered at the hands of the Church for their beliefs.

 

If this time in his life turned him negative to the Catholic Church, what happened next would have an even deeper impact. In 1553, the sickly 15-year-old Protestant King, Edward VI, died, to be replaced by his Catholic half-sister, Mary I. The new Queen began dragging off leading Protestants, many to be executed. Several of Foxe's friends were taken away. He too ended up on the list, but managed to escape to Europe just as authorities were tracking him down. Mary would come to be despised by Protestants, given the name “Bloody Mary” for her treatment of them. Foxe remained in Europe for her five-year reign, but stories of her brutality reached him. He wrote a shorter precursor to his Book of Martyrs, which covered earlier martyrs he had been researching before his exile, and some of those of Mary's era. After Mary died childless in 1558, the throne was passed to her Protestant half-sister Elizabeth. Foxe returned to England, and began work in earnest on this first edition of his famous book. This time, a substantial portion of the book would be devoted to the martyrs of Mary's reign.

 

When his book was finally published in 1563, it became enormously popular with English Protestants. There was much residual anger from Mary's reign, and still great fear that Elizabeth would be overthrown and another Catholic monarch installed. Elizabeth would rule for 45 years, but no one knew at the time this would come to pass, and several attempts were made to overthrow her along the way. Foxe became, through his book, the defender of Elizabeth's Protestant reign against what her followers saw as attempts by a Satanic Church in Rome to retake control of England. His accounts of terrible things the Church had done to his book's martyrs reenforced this image of good vs. evil, and the book's woodcut illustrations of martyrs being consumed by fire, or papists being dragged into Hell, did not aid in bringing about mutual understanding. This was the 17th century, and there was little room for seeing shades of gray between the black and white of good and evil.

 

If one looks past the language about papists, there was more to see in John Foxe than a simple, extreme advocate of one side. He saw the Church as a hindrance to communion with God, so to him it became a false Church. The Mass, rather than connecting people to God, stood in the way. The Word was the real Church. His martyrs became symbols of the real Church, the papists of the false.

 

There were, naturally enough, martyrs on the other side, and Catholics would see him as blind to this. However, these were terrible times, and those in a war rarely stop to look at the good side of their enemies, or for their own shortcomings. In time, we can perhaps look at our roles in the battle more objectively, but during the fighting, we usually see things as black and white. Foxe saw the wrongs done to his martyrs, often, though not always, had it right, and told the story as his side saw it.

 

It should be noted that Foxe was a notable humanitarian for his time. He did not seek to make martyrs of others in return for what was done to people of his view. He opposed execution for heretics, common at the time. He interceded with authorities (usually without success) to save the lives of those whose views he vehemently rejected. He favored excommunication, hoping they would one day return to the fold. This is not to say he developed any particular tolerance for beliefs different from his own. He was not an objective observer. What he did believe in was humanitarian treatment of others, even if he had no doubt their beliefs were wrong.

 

Perhaps his views toward Catholics might have fit better with the 19th century. At that time, there was much condemnation of “popery” and the like among Protestants, but they weren't burning each other then either. From today's standpoint, we might say he is two centuries behind the time. But Foxe did not live in the 21st century. He lived in the 16th, and from that vantage point, we might say he was two centuries ahead of his time.

 

Of course, the theological issues underpinning his beliefs are still disputed today, and Foxe remains an influence on Protestant thought, an anathema to Catholic thought. That is a difference of opinion not a topic for this look at Foxe, and this book with a leaf from the major achievement of his life. What we can do is celebrate this beautiful new book with its very old leaf, and contemplate the man and his times, the good and the bad, and realize how far we have come from the days when we settled our differences by fire.

 

The leaf book from Foxe's Martyrs is available ath the following website: www.rarebibles.com/john-foxe-leaf-book.

Rare Book Monthly

  • <b>Sotheby’s Online, June 18 - 28:</b> Lewis, Meriwether, and William Clark. <i>History of the Expedition Under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark, To the Sources of the Missouri…</i> 1814, first edition. $100,000 to $150,000
    <b>Sotheby’s Online, June 18 - 28:</b> Poe, Edgar Allan. <i>Tales.</i> New York: Wiley And Putnam, 1845. First edition, first printing, first issue. $70,000 to $100,000
    <b>Sotheby’s Online, June 18 - 28:</b> Dürer, Albrecht, and Johann Stabius. [Map of the World as a Sphere.] [Vienna,] 1781 (From Woodblocks Cut In 1515). $120,000 to $180,000
    <b>Sotheby’s Online, June 18 - 28:</b> Ferdinand, Franz — Lala Deen Dayal [Photographer]. VISIT OF H.I. & H.R. THE ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND OF AUSTRIA ESTE TO HYDERABAD (DECCAN), JANUARY 1893. $4,000 to $6,000
    <b>Sotheby’s Online, June 18 - 28:</b> Lincoln, Abraham. Manuscript Letter Signed ("Yours Truly A. Lincoln") as Sixteenth President to Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles Regarding William Johnson. $200,000 to $300,000
  • <center><b>TIMED ONLINE AUCTION<br>June 11 - 25, 2018</b></center>
    <b>Mayfair Book Auctions, Jun 11 - 25:</b> ACCADEMIA ERCOLANENSE DI ARCHEOLOGIA. <i>Ornati delle Pareti</i>, Naples 1796. £2,000 to £3,000
    <b>Mayfair Book Auctions, Jun 11 - 25:</b> AMERICAS. <i>Il Gazzettiere Americano…</i>, Livorno, 1763. £2,000 to £3,000
    <b>Mayfair Book Auctions, Jun 11 - 25:</b> BARROW, John. <i>Travels in China…</i>, London, 1804. £600 to £800
    <center><b>TIMED ONLINE AUCTION<br>June 11 - 25, 2018</b></center>
    <b>Mayfair Book Auctions, Jun 11 - 25:</b> BENOIST, Felix. <i>Album de L'Ile de Jersey</i>…, Paris & Nantes, 1870. £1,500 to £2,000
    <b>Mayfair Book Auctions, Jun 11 - 25:</b> GAIL, Wilhelm. <i>Erinnerungen aus Spanien,</i> Munchen, [ca. 1837]. £1,800 to £2,200
    <b>Mayfair Book Auctions, Jun 11 - 25:</b> HANCARVILLE, Pierre d'. <i>Recherches sur l'origine…,</i> London, Appleyard, 1785. £1,5000 to £2,000
    <center><b>TIMED ONLINE AUCTION<br>June 11 - 25, 2018</b></center>
    <b>Mayfair Book Auctions, Jun 11 - 25:</b> HULLEY, T. <i>Six Views of Cheltenham.</i> London, R. Ackerman, 1813. £800 to £1,200
    <b>Mayfair Book Auctions, Jun 11 - 25:</b> JEFFERSON, Thomas. <i>Notes on the state of Virginia</i>…, London, 1787. £12,000 to £18,000
    <b>Mayfair Book Auctions, Jun 11 - 25:</b> LEWIS, John F. <i>Lewis's illustrations of Constantinople…,</i> London, McLean, 1837. £3,000 to £4,000
    <center><b>TIMED ONLINE AUCTION<br>June 11 - 25, 2018</b></center>
    <b>Mayfair Book Auctions, Jun 11 - 25:</b> MARQUARD, Johann. <i>Tractatus politico-juridicus,</i> Frankfurt, 1662. £1,800 to £2,200
    <b>Mayfair Book Auctions, Jun 11 - 25:</b> MAUND, Benjamin. <i>The botanic garden,</i> London, 1825-42. £1,500 to £2,000
    <b>Mayfair Book Auctions, Jun 11 - 25:</b> Willughby, Francis; John Ray (ed.). <i>Ornithologiæ libri tres</i>. London, John Martyn, 1676. £1,500 to £2,000

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