• <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b><br>SAXTON, Christopher. <i>The Travellers Guide being the best Mapp of the Kingdom of England and Principality of Wales</i>. London, [1583, but c.1716].
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b><br>VISSCHER, Claes Jansz. <i>Novissima et Accuratissima Leonis Belgici</i>. Amsterdam, Claes Jansz Visscher, [1611-1621 or later].
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b> PTOLEMAEUS, Claudius. <i>Decima Asie Tabula</i>. Ulm, Lienhart Holle, 16 July 1482.
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b><br>WIT, Frederick de, and Gerard VALK. <i>Orbis Terrarum Nova et Accurata Tabula</i>. Amsterdam, Gerard Valk, [c.1690-1700].
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b><br>APIANUS, Petrus. <i>Astronomicum Caesareum</i>. Ingolstadt, Peter Apian, 1540.
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b><br>CASSINI, Jean-Dominique. <i>Carte de la Lune</i>. Paris, Jean-Dominique Cassini, 1787.
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b> PTOLEMAEUS, Claudius. <i>Geographicae enarrationis libri octo</i>. Argentoragi, 1525.
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b><br>[SAXTON, Christopher]. <i> [An Atlas of England and Wales]</i>. [London, Christopher Saxton, 1579].
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b> Commission des sciences et arts d'Egypte. <i>Description de l’Égypte</i>… Paris, Imprimerie impériale - Imprimerie royale, 1809-1828.
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b> CHURCHMAN, John. <i>To George Washington President of the United States of America this Magnetic Atlas or Variation Chart is humbly inscribed by John Churchman</i>. Philadelphia, 1790.
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b><br>APIANUS, Petrus. <i>Tipus Orbis Universalis</i>. Vienna, Johannes Camertius, 1520.
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b><br>LORIOT, A[uguste], [after] Nicolas LANE. <i>[Pocket globe]</i>. London, 65 New Bond Street, 1809.
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b><br>BLAEU, Johannes. <i>Grooten Atlas</i>. Amsterdam, Joan Blaeu, 1662-1665.
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b><br>INGEBORG BRUN, Emmy. <i>Mars efter Lowell’s Glober 1894-1914</i>. Denmark, [c1915].
    <b>Daniel Crouch Rare Books</b><br>LUTHER, Martin. <i>Der vierde Teil aller Bücher vnd Schrifften des thewren seligen Mans</i>. Gedruckt zu Jhena, Durch Christian Rödinger, 1556.
  • <b>Seth Kaller:</b> “America the Beautiful”
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> George Washington, Tongue-in-Cheek, Writes James McHenry About His Wife or Mistress—But Funding the Continental Army is the Real Topic
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Young’s Map of the United States
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> President Lincoln & His Most Profitable Client, the Illinois Central Railroad
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Lincoln Thanks Former Pro-Slavery and Newly Republican Congressman for a Fiery Anti-Slavery Speech at a Philadelphia Campaign Rally
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> “A Visit From St. Nicholas” - great association copy inscribed by Clement C. Moore
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Einstein Agrees to Allow “a Short Book on the Hydrogen Bomb” to Use His Statement Made on Eleanor Roosevelt’s TV Show
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> The Building Blocks of Albert Einstein’s Creative Mind
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> A Unique Manuscript Map of Block Island Sound Including Fisher’s and Gardiner’s Islands, the Hamptons, and Montauk Point
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> J.R.R. Tolkien Writes his Proofreader with a Lengthy Discussion of the Lord of the Rings, Including Criticism of Radio Broadcasts of his Work
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Six Benjamin Franklin Signed Receipts – Including his Earliest Obtainable Autograph — Acknowledging a Donation to the Famous Library Company He Founded, and Five Payments for His Pennsylvania Gazette
    <b>Seth Kaller:</b> Sherman Dishes on Lincoln & Thomas, Meade, Sheridan, Halleck & Grant
  • <b>Now in press: 19th Century Shop’s Catalog 170 Great Books and Photos. Please inquire for a copy.</b>
    <b>19th Century Shop.</b> <i>The First American Magna Carta. English Liberties.</i> Boston, 1721.
    <b>19th Century Shop.</b> Babbage presentation to Peel, the man who killed the Difference Engine 1832
    <b>19th Century Shop.</b> The Stamp Act. 1765
    <b>Now in press: 19th Century Shop’s Catalog 170 Great Books and Photos. Please inquire for a copy.</b>
    <b>19th Century Shop.</b> Central Park Photographs by Prevost 1862
    <b>19th Century Shop.</b> Salem Witch Trials. Wonders of the Invisible World 1693
    <b>19th Century Shop.</b> Mammoth print of Millie-Christine, "The Carolina Twins" c. 1868
  • <b>Arader Galleries: Winter 2017 Auction. January 28, 2017</b>
    <b>Arader Galleries Jan. 28:</b> Long-Billed Curlew, Plate 231. John James Audubon. First Edition Robert Havell Aquatint Engraving with Original Hand Color From <i>Birds of America</i>. London, 1827-1838. 37 1/2 x 24 3/4” sheet, 49 1/2 x 37” framed
    <b>Arader Galleries Jan. 28:</b> Summer, or Wood Duck, Plate 206. John James Audubon. First Edition Robert Havell Aquatint Engraving with Original Hand Color From <i>Birds of America</i>. London, 1827-1838. 39 x 25 1/2” inches sheet, 49 1/2 x 37” framed
    <b>Arader Galleries Jan. 28:</b> Fish Hawk or Osprey, Plate 81. John James Audubon. First Edition Robert Havell Aquatint Engraving with Original Hand Color From <i>Birds of America</i>. London, 1827-1838. 38 1/4 x 25 1/4" sheet, 50 x 37” framed
    <b>Arader Galleries: Winter 2017 Auction. January 28, 2017</b>
    <b>Arader Galleries Jan. 28:</b> Great Cinereous Owl, Plate 351. John James Audubon. First Edition Robert Havell Aquatint Engraving with Original Hand Color From <i>Birds of America</i>. London, 1827-1838. 38 x 25” sheet, 50 x 37” framed
    <b>Arader Galleries Jan. 28:</b> A Flying Lizard, Surrounded by Beetles and Other Insects. Herman Henstenburgh, (Hoorn 1667 - 1726). Watercolor and gouache on paper. 7 x 10 1/4" sheet, 13 1/2 x 18 3/4" inches framed
    <b>Arader Galleries Jan. 28:</b> Marco Polo's Sheep (Ovis Poli). Joseph Wolf (1820 - 1899). Pencil and Watercolor, heightened with touches of white. Signed and dated Lower right "J. Wolf 1875". 11 1/4 x 15 1/4" sheet
    <b>Arader Galleries: Winter 2017 Auction. January 28, 2017</b>
    <b>Arader Galleries Jan. 28:</b> Winter Scene in Kamchatka. Attributed to John Webber, R.A. (1751-1793). Oil on Canvas. 25 x 36 1/2" canvas, 30 x 41” framed
    <b>Arader Galleries Jan. 28:</b> Winter River Scene. Cornelius David Krieghoff (1815-1872). Oil on Canvas. 16 x 20” canvas, 25 x 29” framed
    <b>Arader Galleries Jan. 28:</b> Grand Canyon of Arizona from Hermit Rim Road. Thomas Moran (1837-1926). Chromolithograph. New York: Atcheson, Topeka and Sante Fe Railway System, 1913. Printed by American Lithographic Co. 31 3/4 x 41 1/2" sheet
    <b>Arader Galleries: Winter 2017 Auction. January 28, 2017</b>
    <b>Arader Galleries Jan. 28:</b> Occidentalis Americae Partis... Theodore de Bry (1528-1598). Engraved Map. Frankfurt, 1594. 13 1/4 x 17 1/2" sheet, 24 1/2 x 29” framed
    <b>Arader Galleries Jan. 28:</b> Nouveau Monde. Nicolas De Nicolai (1517-1583). Engraved map. Amsterdam, 1602. 12 x 15 1/2"
    <b>Arader Galleries Jan. 28:</b> Typus Universalis Terrae... Petrus Apianus (1495-1552) & Reiner Gemma Frisius (1508-1555). Engraved map. Basel: Reisch, 1583. 8 1/4 x 12” sheet

Rare Book Monthly

Articles - May - 2012 Issue

Department of Justice Sues Apple, Five Book Publishers

Dojapple

The Department of Justice sued Apple and five publishers for price fixing e-books.

The long rumored lawsuit by the U.S. Department of Justice against the world's most valuable company, Apple, and five book publishers for conspiracy to fix prices, was finally filed last month. The basic claim is that the companies conspired to force Amazon to raise its prices on electronic books. As a result, books that generally were being sold for $9.99 each had their prices raised to $12.99 or $14.99.

When Amazon began offering e-books in 2007, it offered them at a price substantially lower than printed copies. Their $9.99 price left the company little room for profit. Sometimes, the price resulted in a loss. However, Amazon was more concerned with building a business than making a short-term profit. The low book prices helped spur sales of its e-book reader, the Kindle, and made Amazon the overwhelming choice for those who purchased e-books. Amazon held an estimated 90% of the market.

According to the Department of Justice complaint, the five publishers (Hachette, HarperCollins, MacMillan, Penguin, and Simon & Schuster) “feared that lower retail prices for e-books might lead eventually to lower wholesale prices for e-books, lower prices for print books, and other consequences the publishers hoped to avoid.” Each feared consumers would come to expect a $9.99 price point, and wanted to disabuse them of such expectations as soon as possible. However, they “concluded that unilateral efforts to move Amazon away from its practice of offering low retail prices would not work, and they thereafter conspired to raise retail e-book prices and to otherwise limit competition in the sale of e-books.”

Just as the publishers were facing this price conundrum, Apple let it be known that it would be releasing its tablet computer, the iPad, which doubles as an electronic reader, and was considering selling e-books too. According to the complaint, Apple believed it could “trounce Amazon by opening up its own e-book store.” However, Apple was not looking for loss leaders or low margin businesses. Anyone who has ever purchased an Apple product realizes this. So, when Apple and the publishers discussed the former's interest in selling their e-books, “Apple learned that the Publisher Defendants shared a common objective with Apple to limit e-book retail price competition.” The parties also realized that the publishers wanted the price of e-books to be substantially higher than $9.99. As a result of these discussion, the DOJ continues, “Defendants reached an agreement whereby retail price competition would cease, retail e-book prices would increase significantly, and Apple would be guaranteed a 30% 'commission' on each e-book it sold.”

The DOJ then claims the parties, to effectuate their price fixing conspiracy, changed the model by which electronic books were sold. Instead of the “wholesale model,” by which publishers sold their e-books at a wholesale price, and the retailers sold them for whatever they wished, the publishers adopted an “agency model.” Under this model, the retailers acted as “agents” for the publishers. The publishers set the price, and their “agents,” the retailers, all had to sell their books for the same set price. There would be no price competition. The retailers would receive a fixed percentage commission on each e-book they sold. The publishers would get their wish – higher retail prices for e-books – and Apple would have its demand fulfilled, that no one would be permitted to undercut their retail price. Apple bought into this plan, according to the complaint, knowing it “would result in higher prices to consumers.”

The complaint concludes that once the publishers reached their agency agreement with Apple, the publishers limited price competition among themselves, and e-books that previously sold for $9.99 now sold for $12.99 and $14.99. As a result, consumers have been forced “to pay tens of millions of dollars more for e-books than they otherwise would have paid.” The DOJ asked the court to declare this practice illegal and prevent further “injury to consumers” by the parties.

The DOJ cites numerous meetings and telephone conversations by the publishers, both among themselves and with Apple, during which the scheme was allegedly hatched. Within a three day period in January 2010, all five publishers signed agreements with Apple, and the agency agreements all went into effect on the same day, April 3, 2010, the release date of the iPad.

When Macmillan led the way in enforcing the agency model on Amazon, the latter responded by discontinuing the sale of their books. However, when the other four backed up Macmillan with the same terms, the complaint says Amazon was forced to back down. The five represented almost half of Amazon's e-book business. The publishers had succeeded in enforcing the terms of its agreement with Apple on Amazon. Amazon had to raise prices to consumers.

Almost immediately after filing the claim, the Department of Justice announced that three of the publishers – Hachette, HarperCollins, and Simon & Schuster – had reached a settlement with them. The settlement would require terminating their agreements with Apple and refraining from further limiting the prices at which retailers may sell their e-books. However, Apple and the other two publishers have indicated they plan to fight the charges. Apple described the charges as “simply not true,” and says, to the contrary, they have “broken Amazon's monopolistic grip” on the e-book field. It compared the publishers' setting the prices on their iBookstore to “apps” developers setting their prices on Apple's App Store.

Meanwhile, the parties are facing litigation in several other venues. Fifteen states have reportedly already reached an agreement with the three publishers which will require a substantial cash payment from them. A private class action suit may affect residents of other states. The European Commission is investigating the claims, and reportedly has received settlement offers from Apple and four of the publishers (Penguin being the lone holdout). A class action suit has been brought in Canada, and Australia is reportedly considering action.

Rare Book Monthly

  • <b>Sotheby’s Paris: Livres et Manuscrits. February 8, 2017</b>
    <b>Sotheby’s Paris Feb. 8:</b> Rimbaud, Arthur. <i>Plaisirs du jeune âge.</i> [1865]. Original drawing, made by the young Rimbaud at the age of 10.<br>100,000 – 150,000€
    <b>Sotheby’s Paris Feb. 8:</b> Rimbaud, Arthur. <i>La rivière de cassis.</i> [1872]. Rare autograph poem. Paul Verlaine’s copy. 200,000 – 300,000€
    <b>Sotheby’s Paris Feb. 8:</b> Lichtenstein, Roy. <i>La Nouvelle chute de l’Amérique.</i> Solstice, 1992. 10 original prints, signed and numbered by the artist. 35,000 – 50,000€
    <b>Sotheby’s Paris Feb. 8:</b> Giacometti, Alberto. <i>Pomme endormie.</i> Barbezat, [1961]. One of the first 23 copies, on Japan paper, with 2 suites. The 16 lithographs of the suite are signed. 20,000 – 25,000€
    <b>Sotheby’s Paris: Livres et Manuscrits. February 8, 2017</b>
    <b>Sotheby’s Paris Feb. 8:</b> FABRICIUS AB ACQUAPENDENTE. Set of 4 original folio éditions. 1600-1603. Rare in its contemporary heraldic binding. 20,000 – 30,000€
    <b>Sotheby’s Paris Feb. 8:</b> CASSERIO & SPIGELIUS. <i>Tabulae anatomicae, De humani corporis fabrica, De formatu foetu.</i> 1626-1627. In-folio. First editions. 5,000 – 7,000€
    <b>Sotheby’s Paris Feb. 8:</b> PARACELSE. <i>Bücher und Schrifften.</i> 1589-1591. 6 vol. in-4. The copy of Hermann of Hesse, son of Maurice the Learned. Contemporary binding.<br>20,000 – 30,000€
    <b>Sotheby’s Paris Feb. 8:</b> LAFOSSE. <i>Cours d’hippiatrique.</i> 1772. In-folio. Magnificently colored, in a contemporary binding.<br>13,000 – 18,000€
  • <b>Bonhams: History of Science and Technology. December 7, 2016</b>
    <b>Bonhams Dec. 7:</b> EINSTEIN, ALBERT. <i>Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie.</i> Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1916.<br>$80,000 – 120,000
    <b>Bonhams Dec. 7:</b> NEWTON, ISAAC. Autograph Manuscript in English, Signed Integrally ("Isaac Newton"). $50,000 – 70,000
    <b>Bonhams Dec. 7:</b> DARWIN, CHARLES. <i>On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life</i>. London: John Murray, 1859. $25,000 – 35,000
    <b>Bonhams: History of Science and Technology. December 7, 2016</b>
    <b>Bonhams Dec. 7:</b> NEWTON, ISAAC. <i>The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.</i> London: Benjamin Motte, 1729.<br>$20,000 – 30,000
    <b>Bonhams Dec. 7:</b> HEISENBERG, WERNER. Autograph Manuscript entitled "<i>Entwicklung der Theorie der Elementarteilche,</i>” [1964].<br>$15,000 – 25,000
    <b>Bonhams Dec. 7:</b> BERNOULLI, DANIEL. <i>Hydrodynamica, sive De viribus et motibus fluidorum commentarii.</i> Strasbourg: Johann Heinrich Decker for Johann Reinhold Dulsecker, 1738. $5,000 – 7,000
    <b>Bonhams: Voices of the 20th Century. December 7, 2016</b>
    <b>Bonhams Dec. 7:</b> [TARKOVSKY, ANDREI ARSENIEVICH.] STRUGATSKY, BORIS AND ARKADY. Typed Manuscript for <i>Stalker</i>, being the director's working script, 1977. $150,000 – 200,000
    <b>Bonhams Dec. 7:</b> HEMINGWAY, ERNEST. Typed Manuscript of "Marlin Off the Morro: A Cuban Letter," n.p., [1933]. $30,000 – 50,000
    <b>Bonhams Dec. 7:</b> SALINGER, JEROME DAVID. 4 Autograph Letters, 2 of which Signed ("Jerry") and 6 Typed Letters, 2 of which Initialed ("J"). $30,000 – 50,000
    <b>Bonhams: Voices of the 20th Century. December 7, 2016</b>
    <b>Bonhams Dec. 7:</b> PASTERNAK, BORIS LEONIDOVICH. Typed Manuscript Carbon, "Doktor Zhivago," with some typed corrections, Moscow, 1948. $30,000 – 50,000
    <b>Bonhams Dec. 7:</b> MILNE, ALAN ALEXANDER. Autograph Manuscript Signed 3 times ("A.A. Milne"), entitled "Peace with Honour: An Enquiry into the War Convention," 1934.<br>$30,000 – 50,000
    <b>Bonhams Dec. 7:</b> FROST, ROBERT. Autograph Manuscript Signed ("Robert Frost"), titled "Gold for Christmas," 1952. $15,000 – 20,000
  • <b>Forum Auctions: Fine Books, Western Manuscripts & Works on Paper. January 25, 2017</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions Jan. 25:</b> Zenobius. Epitome proverbiorum Tarrhaei et Didymi [graece], Florence, [possibly Bartolomeo de' Libri for] Filippo Giunta, [after 23 September] 1497. £15,000 – 20,000
    <b>Forum Auctions Jan. 25:</b> Phalaris. [Phalaridis tyranni Apollonii Philosophi pythagoraei Epistolae [Graece], Venice, Bartholomaeus Pelusius, Gabriel Bracius de Brisighella, Johannes Bissolus and Benedictus Mangius, 18 June, 1498. £10,000 – 15,000
    <b>Forum Auctions Jan. 25:</b> Orpheus. Argonautica. Hymni [graece], Florence, [Bartolomeo de' Libri for] Filippo Giunta, 19 September, 1500. £20,000 – 30,000
    <b>Forum Auctions: Fine Books, Western Manuscripts & Works on Paper. January 25, 2017</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions Jan. 25:</b> Primaleon.- Los tres libros del muy esforçado cavallero Primaleon et Polendos su hermano…, Venice, Giovanni Antonio Nicolini da Sabbio for Giovanni Battista Pederzano, February, 1534. £20,000 – 30,000
    <b>Forum Auctions Jan. 25:</b> Bodoni (Giambattista). Manuale Tipografico, 2 vol., Parma, Giambattista Bodoni, 1818. £8,000 – 12,000
    <b>Forum Auctions Jan. 25:</b> Music. Gafurius (Franchinus). Practica musicae, Brescia, Angelus Britannicus, 23 September, 1497. £10,000 – 15,000
    <b>Forum Auctions: Fine Books, Western Manuscripts & Works on Paper. January 25, 2017</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions Jan. 25:</b> Bonaventura (Saint). A group of three Franciscan mystical texts, [14th century]. £15,000 – 20,000
    <b>Forum Auctions Jan. 25:</b> Boccaccio (Giovanni). Trattatello in laude di Dante, decorated manuscript on paper, Florence, first half of 15th century. £30,000 – 40,000
    <b>Forum Auctions Jan. 25:</b> Greek medical manuscript. Iatrosophion, decorated manuscript on paper, Greece (probably Crete), [first half of 16th century]. £8,000 – 12,000
    <b>Forum Auctions: Fine Books, Western Manuscripts & Works on Paper. January 25, 2017</b>
    <b>Forum Auctions Jan. 25:</b> Heraldry. Nayler (George). Album of coats of arms compiled from the papers of Sir George Nayler, 114 coats of arms, most with manuscript captions. [17th, 18th & early 19th centuries]. £1,500 – 2,000
    <b>Forum Auctions Jan. 25:</b> Zoffany (Johan). Autograph Letter signed to Messrs. Raikes & Co., merchants, 1p. with conjugate blank and address panel, 17th July 1801, "In consequence of an order I received from General Claud Martin…”<br>£500 - 700
    <b>Forum Auctions Jan. 25:</b> Bury (Richard de, Bishop of Durham). Philobiblon...sive de amore librorum, Oxford, Joseph Barnes, 1599.<br>£4,000 – 6,000
  • <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26: Alphonse Mucha & Masters of Art Nouveau: The Harry C. Meyerhoff Collection</b>
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26:</b> Alphonse Mucha, <i>Princezna Hyacinta</i>, 1911. $15,000 to $20,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26:</b><br><i>Les Maîtres de l'Affiche</i>, 5 volumes, Paris, 1896-1900.<br>$35,000 to $50,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26:</b> Alphonse Mucha, <i>Job</i>, 1896.<br>$15,000 to $20,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26: Alphonse Mucha & Masters of Art Nouveau: The Harry C. Meyerhoff Collection</b>
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26:</b> Alphonse Mucha, <i>Bleuze - Hadancourt Parfumeur</i>, circa 1899.<br>$15,000 to $20,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26:</b> Alphonse Mucha, <i>Lygie</i>, 1901. $12,000 to $18,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26:</b> Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, <i>Babylone d'Allemagne</i>, 1894.<br>$30,000 to $40,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26: Alphonse Mucha & Masters of Art Nouveau: The Harry C. Meyerhoff Collection</b>
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26:</b> Alphonse Mucha, <i>Zodiac / La Plume</i>, 1896. $15,000 to $20,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26:</b> Alphonse Mucha, <i>The Seasons</i>, 4 panels on silk, 1900.<br>$15,000 to $20,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26:</b> Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, <i>Aristide Bruant dans son Cabaret</i>, 1893. $20,000 to $30,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26: Alphonse Mucha & Masters of Art Nouveau: The Harry C. Meyerhoff Collection</b>
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26:</b> Alphonse Mucha, <i>Monaco / Monte-Carlo</i>, 1897. $12,000 to $18,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26:</b> Alphonse Mucha, <i>Medee / Sarah Bernhardt</i>, 1898. $12,000 to $18,000.
    <b>Swann Auction Galleries, Jan 26:</b> Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, <i>Confetti</i>, 1894. $40,000 to $60,000.

Article Search

Archived Articles

Ask Questions